How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Appendix F:  Supplementary Tables to Chapter 7

12/01/2001

Appendix Table F.1
Control Group Outcomes for Selected Measures, by Welfare History
Site and Program Sample Size Average Total Earnings in Years 1 to 5 ($) Average Welfare Payments in Years 1 to 5 ($) Combined Income in Years 1 to 5 ($)

On welfare for two years or more

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 2,063 14,067 11,202 39,133
Atlanta Human Capital Development 2,100 14,067 11,202 39,133
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,791 18,507 14,551 42,370
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,775 18,507 14,551 42,370
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 3,510 10,827 21,539 39,971
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 1,831 7,677 22,800 38,504
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,841 7,677 22,800 38,504
Columbus Integrated 3,392 22,855 10,095 43,925
Columbus Traditional 3,415 22,855 10,095 43,925
Detroit 3,313 19,404 17,040 48,018
Oklahoma City 2,076 11,771 n/a n/a
Portland 2,443 16,885 13,370 40,755

On welfare for less than two years

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 840 25,528 6,969 42,277
Atlanta Human Capital Development 847 25,528 6,969 42,277
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,219 23,985 10,670 41,847
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,215 23,985 10,670 41,847
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 3,101 19,393 14,624 39,513
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 1,248 15,370 16,303 37,829
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,238 15,370 16,303 37,829
Columbus Integrated 806 33,403 6,508 47,620
Columbus Traditional 793 33,403 6,508 47,620
Detroit 1,015 24,142 13,688 46,658
Oklahoma City 2,683 13,787 n/a n/a
Portland 1,494 26,955 9,104 43,050
SOURCES: MDRC calculations from unemployment insurance (UI) earnings records and AFDC records.
NOTE: N/a = not applicable.

 

Appendix Table F.2
Control Group Outcomes for Selected Measures, by Recent Work Experience

Site and Program

Sample Size Average Total Earnings in Years 1 to 5 ($) Average Welfare Payments in Years 1 to 5 ($) Combined Income in Years1 to 5 ($)

Did not work in year prior to random assignment

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,869 11,756 11,024 36,191
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,937 11,756 11,024 36,191
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,527 15,109 14,680 38,649
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,489 15,109 14,680 38,649
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 4,010 9,143 20,198 36,357
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 2,074 6,649 21,772 35,917
Riverside Human Capital Development 2,065 6,649 21,772 35,917
Columbus Integrated 2,143 15,916 9,984 36,132
Columbus Traditional 2,160 15,916 9,984 36,132
Detroit 2,978 16,065 17,395 44,839
Oklahoma City 3,910 8,128 n/a n/a
Portland 2,317 15,927 13,662 39,323

Worked in year prior to random assignment

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,069 27,313 8,038 46,689
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,055 27,313 8,038 46,689
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,485 26,380 11,266 45,667
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,508 26,380 11,266 45,667
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 2,716 23,764 15,333 45,088
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 1,051 19,101 16,888 42,797
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,070 19,101 16,888 42,797
Columbus Integrated 2,529 33,597 8,176 51,434
Columbus Traditional 2,569 33,597 8,176 51,434
Detroit 1,481 29,425 13,953 53,424
Oklahoma City 4,767 16,544 n/a n/a
Portland 1,711 27,710 9,056 45,381
SOURCES: MDRC calculations from unemployment insurance (UI) earnings records and AFDC records.
NOTE: N/a = not applicable.

 

Appendix Table F.3
Control Group Outcomes for Selected Measures, by Level of Disadvantage

Site and Program

Sample Size Average Total Earnings in Years 1 to 5 ($) Average Welfare Payments in Years 1 to 5 ($) Combined Income in Years 1 to 5 ($)

Most disadvantaged

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 698 8,486 12,244 35,381
Atlanta Human Capital Development 734 8,486 12,244 35,381
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 458 8,622 17,943 36,697
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 453 8,622 17,943 36,697
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,362 5,044 23,895 37,108
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,362 5,044 23,895 37,108
Columbus Integrated 911 11,383 11,557 34,421
Columbus Traditional 901 11,383 11,557 34,421
Detroit 1,119 11,532 20,072 44,519
Oklahoma City 429 3,888 n/a n/a
Portland 617 10,715 16,575 38,513

Moderately disadvantaged

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,887 17,542 9,829 40,004
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,911 17,542 9,829 40,004
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 2,123 20,668 12,850 42,108
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 2,078 20,668 12,850 42,108
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 4,298 15,916 17,185 39,417
Riverside Human Capital Development 3,049 15,916 17,185 39,417
Columbus Integrated 3,155 26,251 8,916 45,276
Columbus Traditional 3,236 26,251 8,916 45,276
Detroit 3,018 21,404 15,413 47,440
Oklahoma City 6,170 10,914 n/a n/a
Portland 2,803 20,143 11,896 41,358

Least disadvantaged

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 353 35,469 5,762 49,746
Atlanta Human Capital Development 347 35,469 5,762 49,746
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 431 33,891 8,139 48,040
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 466 33,891 8,139 48,040
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,066 29,903 12,281 46,887
Columbus Integrated 606 44,779 5,585 56,893
Columbus Traditional 592 44,779 5,585 56,893
Detroit 322 41,675 10,898 59,547
Oklahoma City 2,078 20,057 n/a n/a
Portland 608 35,591 5,875 48,183
SOURCES: MDRC calculations from unemployment insurance (UI) earnings records and AFDC records.
NOTE: N/a = not applicable.

 

Appendix Table F.4
Control Group Outcomes for Selected Measures, by Ethnicity

Site and Program

Sample Size Average Total Earnings in Years 1 to 5 ($) Average Welfare Payments in Years 1 to 5 ($) Combined Income in Years 1 to 5 ($)

White, non-Hispanic

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment n/a n/a n/a n/a
Atlanta Human Capital Development n/a n/a n/a n/a
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,470 24,279 11,278 43,288
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,515 24,279 11,278 43,288
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 3,464 15,056 16,394 37,123
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 1,245 10,232 18,157 34,423
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,208 10,232 18,157 34,423
Columbus Integrated 2,161 24,551 7,981 41,388
Columbus Traditional 2,204 24,551 7,981 41,388
Detroit 481 18,179 14,535 42,377
Oklahoma City 5,109 11,997 n/a n/a
Portland 2,754 19,783 11,176 39,941

Black, non-Hispanic

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 2,791 17,584 9,992 40,319
Atlanta Human Capital Development 2,838 17,584 9,992 40,319
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,214 17,841 14,938 42,055
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,158 17,841 14,938 42,055
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,121 14,411 19,593 41,157
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 501 10,551 21,281 39,362
Riverside Human Capital Development 510 10,551 21,281 39,362
Columbus Integrated 2,414 26,572 9,868 47,350
Columbus Traditional 2,431 26,572 9,868 47,350
Detroit 3,836 20,842 16,482 48,429
Oklahoma City 2,484 14,484 n/a n/a
Portland 798 24,242 13,200 47,414

Hispanic

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment n/a n/a n/a n/a
Atlanta Human Capital Development n/a n/a n/a n/a
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 244 15,515 14,019 38,617
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 249 15,515 14,019 38,617
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,858 14,847 20,855 43,658
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 1,210 11,590 21,919 41,991
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,240 11,590 21,919 41,991
Columbus Integrated n/a n/a n/a n/a
Columbus Traditional n/a n/a n/a n/a
Detroit n/a n/a n/a n/a
Oklahoma City 392 11,549 n/a n/a
Portland n/a n/a n/a n/a
SOURCES: MDRC calculations from unemployment insurance (UI) earnings records and AFDC records.
NOTE: N/a = not applicable.

 

Appendix Table F.5
Standard Errors for Impacts on Selected Measures, by Welfare History

Site and Program

Sample Size Average Total Earnings in Years 1 to 5 ($) Average Welfare Payments in Years 1 to 5 ($) Combined Income in Years 1 to 5 ($)

On welfare for two years or more

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 2,063 832 223 746
Atlanta Human Capital Development 2,100 824 221 739
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,791 1,012 360 948
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,775 1,017 361 953
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 3,510 714 443 804
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 1,831 789 610 1,010
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,841 788 610 1,009
Columbus Integrated 3,392 848 211 800
Columbus Traditional 3,415 847 211 799
Detroit 3,313 891 293 791
Oklahoma City 2,076 634 n/a n/a
Portland 2,443 1,566 535 1,541

On welfare for less than two years

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 840 1,911 344 1,713
Atlanta Human Capital Development 847 1,903 342 1,707
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,219 1,416 400 1,303
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,215 1,423 402 1,310
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 3,101 996 436 998
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 1,248 1,271 692 1,388
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,238 1,274 694 1,391
Columbus Integrated 806 2,214 362 2,070
Columbus Traditional 793 2,236 365 2,091
Detroit 1,015 1,828 511 1,608
Oklahoma City 2,683 645 n/a n/a
Portland 1,494 2,493 516 2,315
SOURCES: MDRC calculations from unemployment insurance (UI) earnings records and AFDC records.
NOTE: N/a = not applicable.

 

Appendix Table F.6
Standard Errors for Impacts on Selected Measures, by Recent Work Experience
Site and Program Sample Size Average Total Earnings in Years 1 to 5 ($) Average Welfare Payments in Years 1 to 5 ($) Combined Income in Years 1 to 5 ($)

Did not work in year prior to random assignment

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,869 950 236 857
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,937 931 231 840
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,527 1,019 399 992
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,489 1,033 404 1,005
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 4,010 645 411 750
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 2,074 711 574 953
Riverside Human Capital Development 2,065 713 576 956
Columbus Integrated 2,143 1,003 268 1,002
Columbus Traditional 2,160 1,001 267 1,000
Detroit 2,978 898 318 822
Oklahoma City 3,910 471 n/a n/a
Portland 2,317 1,703 528 1,664

Worked in year prior to random assignment

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,069 1,477 308 1,309
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,055 1,491 311 1,321
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,485 1,322 360 1,193
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,508 1,316 358 1,187
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 2,716 1,142 465 1,099
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 1,051 1,523 738 1,547
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,070 1,507 730 1,530
Columbus Integrated 2,529 1,184 222 1,079
Columbus Traditional 2,569 1,177 221 1,072
Detroit 1,481 1,566 420 1,335
Oklahoma City 4,767 517 n/a n/a
Portland 1,711 2,159 529 2,014
SOURCES: MDRC calculations from unemployment insurance (UI) earnings records and AFDC records.
NOTE: N/a = not applicable.

 

Appendix Table F.7
Standard Errors for Impacts on Selected Measures, by Level of Disadvantage

Site and Program

Sample Size Average Total Earnings in Years 1 to 5 ($) Average Welfare Payments in Years 1 to 5 ($) Combined Income in Years 1 to 5 ($)

Most disadvantaged

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 698 1,095 377 1,056
Atlanta Human Capital Development 734 1,063 366 1,025
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 458 1,402 728 1,542
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 453 1,416 735 1,558
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,362 800 715 1,140
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,362 802 717 1,143
Columbus Integrated 911 1,143 429 1,267
Columbus Traditional 901 1,150 432 1,274
Detroit 1,119 1,186 522 1,148
Oklahoma City 429 924 n/a n/a
Portland 617 2,352 1,232 2,730

Moderately disadvantaged

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,887 1,099 239 977
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,911 1,092 238 970
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 2,123 1,069 324 984
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 2,078 1,082 328 997
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 4,298 799 376 810
Riverside Human Capital Development 3,049 1,052 495 1,067
Columbus Integrated 3,155 1,044 212 967
Columbus Traditional 3,236 1,034 210 958
Detroit 3,018 1,021 312 891
Oklahoma City 6,170 395 n/a n/a
Portland 2,803 1,653 446 1,564

Least disadvantaged

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 353 3,121 495 2,755
Atlanta Human Capital Development 347 3,143 498 2,774
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 431 2,947 624 2,616
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 466 2,846 603 2,526
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,066 288 688 1,928
Columbus Integrated 606 2,958 365 2,687
Columbus Traditional 592 2,990 369 2,715
Detroit 322 4,344 833 3,661
Oklahoma City 2,078 936 n/a n/a
Portland 608 4,204 724 3,845
SOURCES: MDRC calculations from unemployment insurance (UI) earnings records and AFDC records.
NOTE: N/a = not applicable.

 

Appendix Table F.8
Standard Errors for Impacts on Selected Measures, by Ethnicity

Site and Program

Sample Size Average Total Earnings in Years 1 to 5 ($) Average Welfare Payments in Years 1 to 5 ($) Combined Income in Years 1 to 5 ($)

White, non-Hispanic

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment n/a n/a n/a n/a
Atlanta Human Capital Development n/a n/a n/a n/a
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,470 1,276 373 1,177
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,515 1,263 370 1,165
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 3,464 847 406 888
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 1,245 1,139 675 1,303
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,208 1,157 686 1,323
Columbus Integrated 2,161 1,154 243 1,099
Columbus Traditional 2,204 1,142 240 1,088
Detroit 481 2,328 768 2,181
Oklahoma City 5,109 459 n/a n/a
Portland 2,754 1,627 434 1,552

Black, non-Hispanic

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 2,791 826 193 738
Atlanta Human Capital Development 2,838 819 191 732
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,214 1,196 430 1,114
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,158 1,224 440 1,140
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,121 1,475 778 1,572
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 501 1,682 1,163 2,122
Riverside Human Capital Development 510 1,671 1,155 2,108
Columbus Integrated 2,414 1,102 246 1,024
Columbus Traditional 2,431 1,099 245 1,022
Detroit 3,836 858 273 755
Oklahoma City 2,484 682 n/a n/a
Portland 798 2,783 975 2,729

Hispanic

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment n/a n/a n/a n/a
Atlanta Human Capital Development n/a n/a n/a n/a
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 244 2,771 1,027 2,636
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 249 2,787 1,033 2,651
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,858 1,098 624 1,143
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 1,210 1,099 761 1,287
Riverside Human Capital Development 1,240 1,085 751 1,271
Columbus Integrated n/a n/a n/a n/a
Columbus Traditional n/a n/a n/a n/a
Detroit n/a n/a n/a n/a
Oklahoma City 392 1,607 n/a n/a
Portland n/a n/a n/a n/a
SOURCES: MDRC calculations from unemployment insurance (UI) earnings records and AFDC records.
NOTE: N/a = not applicable.