How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Appendix E:  Supplementary Tables to Chapter 6

12/01/2001

Appendix Table E.1
Impacts on Combined Income in Years 1 to 5
Site and Program Program Group ($) Control Group ($) Difference (Impact) Percentage Change (%)

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment

Year 1 7,409 7,188 221** 3.1
Year 2 7,888 7,531 357** 4.7
Year 3 8,271 7,928 343* 4.3
Year 4 8,587 8,364 223 2.7
Year 5 8,983 8,976 7 0.1
Sample size 1,441 1,497    

Atlanta Human Capital Development

Year 1 7,264 7,188 76 1.1
Year 2 7,834 7,531 303** 4.0
Year 3 8,283 7,928 355** 4.5
Year 4 8,805 8,364 441** 5.3
Year 5 8,933 8,976 -42 -0.5
Sample size 1,495 1,497    

Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment

Year 1 7,743 8,037 -294** -3.7
Year 2 7,723 7,987 -264* -3.3
Year 3 8,220 8,391 -171 -2.0
Year 4 8,485 8,807 -323 -3.7
Year 5 8,569 8,950 -381 -4.3
Sample size 1,557 1,455    

Grand Rapids Human Capital Development

Year 1 7,777 8,037 -260** -3.2
Year 2 7,905 7,987 -82 -1.0
Year 3 8,165 8,391 -227 -2.7
Year 4 8,413 8,807 -395* -4.5
Year 5 8,666 8,950 -284 -3.2
Sample size 1,542 1,455    

Riverside Labor Force Attachment

Year 1 8,722 8,706 16 0.2
Year 2 7,663 7,983 -321** -4.0
Year 3 7,420 7,735 -315** -4.1
Year 4 7,469 7,730 -261 -3.4
Year 5 7,655 7,650 6 0.1
Sample size 3,384 3,342    

Riverside Labor Force Attachment
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills

Year 1 8,510 8,635 -125 -1.4
Year 2 7,342 7,865 -523*** -6.6
Year 3 7,064 7,454 -390* -5.2
Year 4 7,017 7,332 -314 -4.3
Year 5 7,096 7,025 71 1.0
Sample size 1,586 1,539    

Riverside Human Capital Development

Year 1 8,249 8,635 -386*** -4.5
Year 2 7,303 7,865 -562*** -7.2
Year 3 6,997 7,454 -457** -6.1
Year 4 6,768 7,332 -564** -7.7
Year 5 6,607 7,025 -418* -6.0
Sample size 1,596 1,539    

Columbus Integrated

Year 1 8,543 8,932 -389*** -4.4
Year 2 8,663 8,654 8 0.1
Year 3 8,686 8,815 -129 -1.5
Year 4 8,934 8,964 -29 -0.3
Year 5 9,211 9,112 98 1.1
Sample size 2,513 2,159    

Columbus Traditional

Year 1 8,766 8,932 -166 -1.9
Year 2 8,709 8,654 55 0.6
Year 3 8,695 8,815 -120 -1.4
Year 4 8,966 8,964 3 0.0
Year 5 9,096 9,112 -17 -0.2
Sample size 2,570 2,159    

Detroit

Year 1 8,694 8,673 21 0.2
Year 2 9,266 9,121 145 1.6
Year 3 9,907 9,779 128 1.3
Year 4 10,146 10,056 90 0.9
Year 5 10,243 10,056 187 1.9
Sample size 2,226 2,233    

Oklahoma City

Year 1 5,363 5,478 -115 -2.1
Year 2 5,269 5,349 -80 -1.5
Year 3 5,368 5,541 -173 -3.1
Year 4 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Year 5 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Sample size 3,430 3,466    

Portland

Year 1 8,836 8,964 -128 -1.4
Year 2 8,700 8,306 394 4.7
Year 3 8,723 8,200 522 6.4
Year 4 8,666 8,054 612* 7.6
Year 5 8,752 8,282 470 5.7
Sample size 3,529 499    
SOURCE:  MDRC calculations from state and county administrative records.
NOTES: See Appendix A.1.

 

Appendix Table E.2
Impacts on Combined Income in Years 1 to 3 and in the Last Quarter of Year 5

Site and Program

Sample Size Program Group ($) Control Group ($) Difference (Impact) Percentage Change (%)

Average combined income in years 1 to 3

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 2,938 22,870 21,967 903** 4.1
Atlanta Human Capital Development 2,992 22,696 21,967 729** 3.3
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 3,012 22,865 23,729 -865** -3.6
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 2,997 23,140 23,729 -589 -2.5
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 6,726 23,385 24,123 -738** -3.1
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 3,125 22,451 23,668 -1,217*** -5.1
Riverside Human Capital Development 3,135 22,147 23,668 -1,521*** -6.4
Columbus Integrated 4,672 24,906 25,493 -588 -2.3
Columbus Traditional 4,729 25,195 25,493 -298 -1.2
Detroit 4,459 27,150 26,924 227 0.8
Oklahoma City 8,677 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Portland 4,028 25,191 24,686 506 2.0

Average combined income in last quarter of year 5

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 2,938 2,155 2,156 -1 -0.0
Atlanta Human Capital Development 2,992 2,117 2,156 -39 -1.8
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 3,012 2,041 2,206 -165** -7.5
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 2,997 2,092 2,206 -113 -5.1
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 6,726 1,857 1,855 2 0.1
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 3,125 1,703 1,687 16 0.9
Riverside Human Capital Development 3,135 1,556 1,687 -131** -7.8
Columbus Integrated 4,672 2,255 2,217 38 1.7
Columbus Traditional 4,729 2,182 2,217 -35 -1.6
Detroit 4,459 2,456 2,453 3 0.1
Oklahoma City 8,677 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Portland 4,028 2,125 1,977 148 7.5
SOURCE:  MDRC calculations from state and county administrative records.
NOTES: See Appendix A.1.

 

Appendix Table E.3
Impacts on Employment and Welfare Status in the Last Quarter of Year 5
Site and Program Sample Size Program Group (%) Control Group (%) Difference (Impact) Percentage Change (%)

Employed and not on welfare

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 2,938 40.5 39.9 0.6 1.4
Atlanta Human Capital Development 2,992 40.0 39.9 0.1 0.3
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 3,012 43.5 46.5 -3.0* -6.4
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 2,997 45.3 46.5 -1.2 -2.5
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 6,726 28.3 26.0 2.3** 8.8
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 3,125 24.5 21.3 3.3** 15.4
Riverside Human Capital Development 3,135 22.7 21.3 1.4 6.6
Columbus Integrated 4,672 50.0 48.0 1.9 4.0
Columbus Traditional 4,729 48.5 48.0 0.5 1.0
Detroit 4,459 39.4 40.5 -1.1 -2.7
Oklahoma City 8,677 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Portland 4,028 46.2 40.4 5.8** 14.3

Employed and on welfare

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 2,938 10.4 11.6 -1.1 -9.7
Atlanta Human Capital Development 2,992 11.3 11.6 -0.3 -2.6
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 3,012 11.5 12.6 -1.1 -8.5
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 2,997 11.4 12.6 -1.2 -9.3
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 6,726 10.1 9.5 0.6 6.3
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 3,125 10.8 9.8 0.9 9.3
Riverside Human Capital Development 3,135 11.2 9.8 1.3 13.5
Columbus Integrated 4,672 4.4 7.0 -2.6*** -36.9
Columbus Traditional 4,729 5.6 7.0 -1.3** -18.9
Detroit 4,459 15.7 14.8 0.9 6.0
Oklahoma City 8,677 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Portland 4,028 3.9 4.3 -0.4 -8.2

Not employed and on welfare

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 2,938 22.1 24.9 -2.8* -11.3
Atlanta Human Capital Development 2,992 23.2 24.9 -1.8 -7.0
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 3,012 12.8 15.2 -2.4* -15.8
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 2,997 14.4 15.2 -0.8 -5.3
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 6,726 20.1 25.1 -5.0*** -20.0
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 3,125 23.8 29.2 -5.4*** -18.6
Riverside Human Capital Development 3,135 22.1 29.2 -7.1*** -24.2
Columbus Integrated 4,672 8.3 9.5 -1.2 -13.1
Columbus Traditional 4,729 8.5 9.5 -1.0 -11.0
Detroit 4,459 19.3 20.4 -1.1 -5.3
Oklahoma City 8,677 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Portland 4,028 8.4 12.9 -4.5*** -34.8

Not employed and not on welfare

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 2,938 27.0 23.6 3.4** 14.3
Atlanta Human Capital Development 2,992 25.6 23.6 2.0 8.3
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 3,012 32.2 25.8 6.5*** 25.1
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 2,997 28.9 25.8 3.1* 12.2
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 6,726 41.5 39.4 2.1* 5.4
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 3,125 40.9 39.7 1.2 3.1
Riverside Human Capital Development 3,135 44.0 39.7 4.3** 10.9
Columbus Integrated 4,672 37.3 35.4 1.9 5.3
Columbus Traditional 4,729 37.3 35.4 1.9 5.3
Detroit 4,459 25.6 24.3 1.3 5.2
Oklahoma City 8,677 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Portland 4,028 41.5 42.5 -1.0 -2.3
SOURCE:  MDRC calculations from state and county administrative records.
NOTES: See Appendix A.1.

 

Appendix Table E.4
Impacts on Receipt of Income for Respondents and Other Household Members in the Last Month of Year 5

Site, Program, and Income Received

Program Group (%) Control Group (%) Difference (Impact) Percentage Change (%)

Atlanta LFA

Any household member

98.1 98.2 -0.1 -0.1
Earnings 68.7 65.5 3.3 5.0
AFDC/TANF 31.4 38.6 -7.2*** -18.7
Food Stamps 54.0 62.4 -8.4*** -13.4
Child support 15.3 14.5 0.8 5.5
SSI/disability 14.8 16.6 -1.8 -10.6
Social Security/pension 6.8 7.6 -0.8 -10.5
Other income 6.4 4.6 1.8 38.1

Respondent

93.7 95.2 -1.5 -1.5
Earnings 59.7 55.0 4.7 8.6
AFDC/TANF 29.2 36.3 -7.1*** -19.5
Food Stamps 51.5 59.4 -7.8*** -13.2
Child support 14.2 13.7 0.5 3.7
SSI/disability 7.8 8.1 -0.3 -3.8
Social Security/pension 2.5 2.2 0.3 13.1
Other income 5.2 4.2 1.0 24.2

Other household member

42.0 40.7 1.3 3.2
Earnings 29.1 27.6 1.5 5.4
AFDC/TANF 3.3 4.0 -0.7 -17.4
Food Stamps 4.2 5.2 -1.0 -18.9
Child support 1.1 0.8 0.3 34.5
SSI/disability 7.9 9.6 -1.7 -17.7
Social Security/pension 4.9 5.8 -0.9 -14.9
Other income 1.1 0.4 0.7 191.0
Sample size 519 552

Atlanta HCD

Any household member

97.9 98.2 -0.3 -0.3
Earnings 67.2 65.5 1.7 2.6
AFDC/TANF 36.7 38.6 -1.9 -4.9
Food Stamps 55.2 62.4 -7.2** -11.6
Child support 18.2 14.5 3.6* 24.9
SSI/disability 16.0 16.6 -0.6 -3.5
Social Security/pension 9.1 7.6 1.4 18.9
Other income 4.6 4.6 -0.0 -0.8

Respondent

93.2 95.2 -2.1 -2.2
Earnings 54.5 55.0 -0.5 -0.9
AFDC/TANF 34.0 36.3 -2.3 -6.5
Food Stamps 52.1 59.4 -7.3** -12.3
Child support 17.9 13.7 4.2* 30.6
SSI/disability 8.1 8.1 0.0 0.4
Social Security/pension 2.5 2.2 0.3 14.1
Other income 3.7 4.2 -0.5 -12.8

Other household member

43.2 40.7 2.5 6.1
Earnings 30.2 27.6 2.6 9.4
AFDC/TANF 5.4 4.0 1.4 35.1
Food Stamps 4.9 5.2 -0.3 -5.8
Child support 0.3 0.8 -0.6 -69.5
SSI/disability 9.3 9.6 -0.3 -2.6
Social Security/pension 6.6 5.8 0.9 15.4
Other income 0.9 0.4 0.5 131.3
Sample size 594 552

Grand Rapids LFA

Any household member 98.2 99.2 -1.0 -1.1
Earnings 82.1 80.3 1.8 2.2
AFDC/TANF 20.4 22.2 -1.8 -7.9
Food Stamps 33.6 36.4 -2.8 -7.8
Child support 25.7 29.0 -3.4 -11.6
SSI/disability 25.3 21.7 3.6 16.6
Social Security/pension 5.1 7.2 -2.1 -28.9
Other income 8.2 7.6 0.6 7.5

Respondent

92.8 93.5 -0.8 -0.8
Earnings 68.4 68.7 -0.3 -0.4
AFDC/TANF 19.7 21.2 -1.5 -7.0
Food Stamps 32.2 35.0 -2.8 -8.0
Child support 25.7 27.5 -1.8 -6.6
SSI/disability 12.2 10.4 1.8 17.7
Social Security/pension 1.2 1.6 -0.4 -22.9
Other income 5.9 6.0 -0.2 -2.8

Other household member

59.3 55.8 3.5 6.3
Earnings 46.8 43.0 3.8 8.9
AFDC/TANF 1.2 1.9 -0.7 -36.8
Food Stamps 2.4 2.4 0.0 1.0
Child support 0.6 1.6 -0.9 -60.1
SSI/disability 16.5 13.1 3.4 25.5
Social Security/pension 3.8 6.0 -2.2* -36.3
Other income 2.8 2.1 0.8 38.7
Sample size 535 562

Grand Rapids HCD

Any household member 98.1 99.2 -1.1 -1.1
Earnings 78.8 80.3 -1.5 -1.9
AFDC/TANF 22.7 22.2 0.5 2.3
Food Stamps 35.0 36.4 -1.5 -4.0
Child support 30.3 29.0 1.2 4.3
SSI/disability 27.7 21.7 6.0** 27.6
Social Security/pension 3.6 7.2 -3.6*** -49.7
Other income 6.7 7.6 -0.9 -12.2

Respondent

92.9 93.5 -0.6 -0.7
Earnings 67.6 68.7 -1.1 -1.7
AFDC/TANF 20.5 21.2 -0.8 -3.6
Food Stamps 31.9 35.0 -3.0 -8.7
Child support 29.0 27.5 1.5 5.4
SSI/disability 14.0 10.4 3.6* 35.1
Social Security/pension 0.7 1.6 -0.9 -54.9
Other income 5.5 6.0 -0.6 -9.4

Other household member

57.0 55.8 1.3 2.3
Earnings 40.1 43.0 -2.9 -6.7
AFDC/TANF 2.9 1.9 1.0 53.7
Food Stamps 3.9 2.4 1.5 64.3
Child support 1.8 1.6 0.2 13.2
SSI/disability 16.3 13.1 3.2 24.0
Social Security/pension 3.0 6.0 -3.0** -49.8
Other income 1.2 2.1 -0.8 -40.1
Sample size 547 562    

Riverside LFA

Any household member 99.4 98.8 0.6 0.6
Earnings 73.7 69.8 3.8 5.5
AFDC/TANF 41.6 49.3 -7.8*** -15.8
Food Stamps 43.6 50.9 -7.3*** -14.4
Child support 11.7 12.5 -0.8 -6.1
SSI/disability 15.3 13.9 1.4 10.0
Social Security/pension 8.8 8.2 0.7 8.3
Other income 10.0 11.0 -1.0 -9.5

Respondent

92.0 90.3 1.7 1.9
Earnings 57.9 51.7 6.2** 12.0
AFDC/TANF 38.3 46.5 -8.2*** -17.6
Food Stamps 39.7 48.7 -8.9*** -18.4
Child support 10.9 11.3 -0.4 -3.3
SSI/disability 8.6 4.7 3.8*** 81.2
Social Security/pension 3.0 2.2 0.8 34.7
Other income 7.0 8.8 -1.9 -21.1

Other household member

52.1 56.3 -4.2 -7.4
Earnings 37.6 42.2 -4.7* -11.1
AFDC/TANF 4.9 5.1 -0.2 -4.8
Food Stamps 5.2 3.7 1.6 43.4
Child support 0.8 1.2 -0.4 -31.9
SSI/disability 7.5 10.0 -2.5 -24.6
Social Security/pension 6.8 6.9 -0.1 -0.7
Other income 3.6 2.5 1.1 44.7
Sample size 499 720

Riverside LFA-lacked high school diploma or basic skills

Any household member 99.4 98.8 0.6 0.6
Earnings 69.6 64.0 5.6 8.8
AFDC/TANF 50.6 59.4 -8.8** -14.9
Food Stamps 49.1 59.6 -10.5*** -17.6
Child support 7.0 11.0 -4.0* -36.4
SSI/disability 14.0 14.6 -0.6 -4.2
Social Security/pension 8.3 7.3 1.0 13.5
Other income 6.9 11.5 -4.5** -39.7

Respondent

91.3 91.2 0.2 0.2
Earnings 52.7 45.1 7.6** 16.7
AFDC/TANF 47.1 56.4 -9.3** -16.5
Food Stamps 45.1 56.4 -11.3*** -20.0
Child support 6.5 9.8 -3.2 -33.3
SSI/disability 10.0 4.8 5.1*** 106.5
Social Security/pension 3.7 2.2 1.6 72.2
Other income 3.8 9.0 -5.3*** -58.5
Other household member 47.3 53.7 -6.4* -11.8
Earnings 32.6 39.7 -7.1** -17.9
AFDC/TANF 5.4 5.6 -0.2 -3.1
Food Stamps 5.5 4.6 0.9 19.2
Child support 0.5 1.2 -0.8 -60.8
SSI/disability 4.9 10.4 -5.5*** -52.7
Social Security/pension 6.1 5.4 0.6 11.7
Other income 3.5 2.7 0.8 30.6
Sample size 255 402

Riverside HCD

Any household member

98.6 98.8 -0.3 -0.3
Earnings 71.7 64.0 7.7** 12.0
AFDC/TANF 51.2 59.4 -8.2** -13.8
Food Stamps 52.2 59.6 -7.4** -12.4
Child support 13.5 11.0 2.5 22.7
SSI/disability 14.8 14.6 0.2 1.2
Social Security/pension 5.3 7.3 -2.0 -27.2
Other income 7.6 11.5 -3.9* -33.7

Respondent

88.6 91.2 -2.6 -2.9
Earnings 54.3 45.1 9.1** 20.2
AFDC/TANF 49.5 56.4 -6.9* -12.2
Food Stamps 50.2 56.4 -6.1 -10.9
Child support 12.5 9.8 2.7 27.9
SSI/disability 6.5 4.8 1.6 34.0
Social Security/pension 1.1 2.2 -1.1 -51.2
Other income 4.5 9.0 -4.5** -50.0

Other household member

54.0 53.7 0.3 0.5
Earnings 39.6 39.7 -0.1 -0.2
AFDC/TANF 4.4 5.6 -1.2 -21.0
Food Stamps 3.9 4.6 -0.8 -17.0
Child support 1.0 1.2 -0.2 -17.6
SSI/disability 9.2 10.4 -1.2 -11.2
Social Security/pension 4.7 5.4 -0.8 -14.0
Other income 3.4 2.7 0.7 27.6
Sample size 376 402

Portland

Any household member

97.7 100.1 -2.4** -2.4
Earnings 81.0 79.4 1.6 2.0
AFDC/TANF 19.1 17.6 1.5 8.3
Food Stamps 33.8 42.3 -8.4* -20.0
Child support 20.2 21.7 -1.5 -6.9
SSI/disability 16.3 10.2 6.1* 60.0
Social Security/pension 12.7 8.7 4.0 45.8
Other income 7.3 9.2 -1.9 -20.7

Respondent

90.1 89.7 0.4 0.4
Earnings 62.5 60.6 1.9 3.1
AFDC/TANF 17.1 15.3 1.8 11.6
Food Stamps 32.0 37.6 -5.7 -15.1
Child support 17.7 21.8 -4.1 -19.0
SSI/disability 8.2 6.2 2.0 32.0
Social Security/pension 0.8 2.9 -2.0* -71.1
Other income 6.5 6.8 -0.3 -4.3

Other household member

60.1 54.2 6.0 11.0
Earnings 45.0 42.5 2.5 5.9
AFDC/TANF 1.9 2.6 -0.7 -25.5
Food Stamps 2.8 6.8 -4.1** -59.6
Child support 2.5 -0.1 2.6** -3487.8
SSI/disability 9.9 4.6 5.3** 116.0
Social Security/pension 11.9 5.8 6.0** 103.1
Other income 1.5 2.9 -1.4 -48.3
Sample size 281 223
SOURCE:  MDRC calculations from  the Five-year Client Survey.
NOTES:  See Appendix A.2

 

Appendix Table E.5
Impacts on Employment Status of Respondent and Other Household Members in the Last Month of Year 5
Site and Program Sample Size Program Group (%) Control Group (%) Difference (Impact) Percentage Change (%)

Only respondent employed

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,071 39.6 37.9 1.8 4.7
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,146 37.0 37.9 -0.9 -2.4
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,097 35.3 37.3 -2.0 -5.4
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,109 38.7 37.3 1.4 3.7
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,219 36.1 27.6 8.5*** 30.9
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 657 37.1 24.3 12.7*** 52.4
Riverside Human Capital Development 778 32.1 24.3 7.8** 31.9
Portland 504 36.0 37.0 -0.9 -2.6

Respondent and other household member employed

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,071 20.1 17.2 2.9 17.1
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,146 17.6 17.2 0.4 2.3
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,097 33.1 31.4 1.7 5.5
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,109 28.9 31.4 -2.5 -8.0
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,219 21.8 24.1 -2.3 -9.6
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 657 15.7 20.8 -5.2* -24.9
Riverside Human Capital Development 778 22.2 20.8 1.3 6.5
Portland 504 26.5 23.7 2.8 11.8

Only other household member employed

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,071 9.0 10.4 -1.5 -14.0
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,146 12.6 10.4 2.2 21.2
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,097 13.7 11.6 2.1 18.0
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,109 11.3 11.6 -0.4 -3.2
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,219 15.8 18.1 -2.4 -13.2
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 657 16.9 18.8 -1.9 -10.2
Riverside Human Capital Development 778 17.4 18.8 -1.4 -7.5
Portland 504 18.5 18.8 -0.3 -1.5

Neither respondent nor other household member employed

Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,071 31.3 34.5 -3.3 -9.4
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,146 32.8 34.5 -1.7 -4.9
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,097 17.9 19.7 -1.8 -9.2
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,109 21.2 19.7 1.5 7.7
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,219 26.3 30.2 -3.8 -12.7
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 657 30.4 36.0 -5.6 -15.7
Riverside Human Capital Development 778 28.3 36.0 -7.7** -21.4
Portland 504 19.0 20.6 -1.6 -7.7
SOURCE:  MDRC calculations from  the Five-year Client Survey.
NOTES:  See Appendix A.2