# How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Appendix A:  Notes for Tables and Figures

Appendix A.1

Notes for Tables and Figures Displaying Impacts

• Estimates were regression-adjusted using ordinary least squares, controlling for pre-random assignment characteristics of sample members.
• "Percentage change" equals 100 times "difference" divided by "control group."
• Rounding may cause slight discrepancies in calculating sums and differences.
• A two-tailed t-test was applied to differences between outcomes for the program and control groups. Statistical significance levels are indicated as: * = 10 percent; ** = 5 percent; and *** = 1 percent.
• Riverside limited enrollment in its HCD program to individuals determined by program regulations to need basic education because they lacked a high school diploma or GED certificate, attained low scores on a reading or math test administered at program entry, or had limited proficiency in English. As a result, control group means differ for the Riverside LFA and HCD programs.
• If outcomes are shown in italics, differences between program group members and control group members are not true experimental comparisons; statistical tests were not performed.
• The quarter of random assignment refers to the calendar quarter in which random assignment occurred. Because quarter 1, the quarter of random assignment, may contain some earnings from the period prior to random assignment, it is excluded from follow-up measures. Thus, "year 1" is quarters 2 through 5, "year 2" is quarters 6 through 9, "year 3" is quarters 10 through 13, "year 4" is quarters 14 through 17, and "year 5" is quarters 18 through 21.
• N/A = not applicable.

Appendix A.2
Notes for Tables and Figures Displaying Impacts
Calculated with Responses to the Two-Year Client Survey, Five-Year Client Survey, Child Outcomes Study, and Teacher Survey

• Measures for program and control group members represent weighted averages. In all sites, certain subgroups were overrepresented (for research purposes) among those chosen to be surveyed. Members of the survey samples are weighted to replicate the proportion of program and control group members in the full impact sample.
• The Five-Year Client Survey sample includes 434 respondents who were not interviewed for the Two-Year Client Survey. Measures calculated from responses to both surveys exclude these sample members.
• Estimates were regression-adjusted using ordinary least squares, controlling for pre-random assignment characteristics of sample members.
• "Percentage change" equals 100 times "difference" divided by "control group."
• Rounding may cause slight discrepancies in calculating sums and differences.
• A two-tailed t-test was applied to differences between outcomes for the program and control groups. Statistical significance levels are indicated as: * = 10 percent; ** = 5 percent; and *** = 1 percent.
• Riverside limited enrollment in its HCD program to individuals determined by program regulations to need basic education because they lacked a high school diploma or GED certificate, attained low scores on a reading or math test administered at program entry, or had limited proficiency in English. As a result, control group means differ for the Riverside LFA and HCD programs.
• If outcomes are shown in italics, differences between program group members and control group members are not true experimental comparisons; statistical tests were not performed.
• In Chapters 11 and 12, "effect size" equals "difference" divided by the standard deviation (not shown in tables) in the "control group." If measures are presented as percentages, "effect size" equals "difference" divided by 100, then divided by the standard deviation in the "control group."