How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Additional Sources of Income for Respondents


Survey respondents were asked whether they had received income from earnings, welfare, Food Stamps, child support payments, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments, Social Security benefits, or "other income" at the end of year 5. (See Appendix Table E.4, middle panels.) The last four types of income were not recorded from administrative records and not included in the measures of combined income presented above. Under some circumstances, programs may affect levels of receipt of child support payments. For instance, program group members were likely to have had more contact with the welfare department than control group members and may have received more help in seeking a child support order. Similarly, programs may have increased SSI receipt if program group members with disabilities had greater contact with the welfare department than control group members.(16)

It turns out, however, that programs had only small and scattered effects on receipt of these income sources at the end of year 5. Only Atlanta HCD increased receipt of child support paymentsВ  by 4.2 percentage points above the control group level of 13.7 percent. Two other programs, Grand Rapids HCD and Riverside LFA, produced a similar increase in SSI receipt. Finally, Riverside HCD reduced "other income" by 4.5 percentage points.