Toward Understanding Homelessness: The 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research. Housing Models. Endnotes


[1]     Worst-case needs households are unassisted renters with incomes below 50 percent of area median income and paying more than 50 percent of their income for rent and utilities. The estimates produced periodically by HUD (and similar estimates published by the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University) are based on the American Housing Survey, conducted for HUD by the U.S. Census.

[2]     See

[3]     Families selected for the program were current TANF recipients, recent TANF recipients, and those eligible for TANF.

[4]     See Quigley, Raphael, & Smolensky, 2001 for a similar conclusion based on econometric simulations.

[5]     The Earned Income Tax Credit, available only for workers, has become an increasingly important income support for families with children.

[6]     This preference was statutory and was repealed by the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act in 1998.

[7]     See

[8]     Some states have been able to put together the Low Income Housing Tax Credit and other funding sources to create permanent supportive housing for people with disabilities, but this is challenging because of the gap between the operating costs of housing and the rents that people with SSI income can afford. See Spellman et al. (2006).

[9]     Emergency shelters are supported primarily by the formula-based Emergency Shelter Grants program. A third McKinney-Vento funded program is the Moderate Rehabilitation for Single Room Occupancy (SRO-MR) program, but this program has been little used in recent years.

[10]    For further information on state LIHTC policies with respect to supportive housing, see Tassos (2006) and Spellman et al. (2006).

[11]    For example, see

[12]    As noted elsewhere in this paper, Shelter Plus Care serves families only if the head of household meets the S+C programs disability criteria. Persons in families account for roughly 40 percent of persons served in the S+C program.

[13]    The study also notes that the county has an extensive data system that allows it to monitor provider performance to ensure that program contracts are awarded to providers that are achieving target outcomes.

[14]    Source: interviews conducted by one of the authors as part of a HUD-sponsored study of the costs of homeless services.

[15]    Public housing authorities administering the voucher program may project-base a portion of their vouchers. Voucher assistance, whether tenant based or project based, typically can be used only for permanent housing. The PHAs providing project-based vouchers to the Sound Families program have additional flexibility in this regard under the demonstration authority known as Moving to Work.


[17]    For a summary of this debate, see Brown (2004).

[18]    See Burt (2006). This study focuses on transitional housing for families, not individuals.

[19]    This indicator applies to all participants, including adult individuals, heads of families, and unaccompanied youth.

[20]    The studys analysis of the financial stability of the supportive housing developments indicated that the costs of departures to the projects in terms of lost rental income were not great enough to cause concern.

[21]    The lodging house selected for study was not a typical shelter, but rather a former flophouse that had been leased by a nonprofit service provider offering lodging to single men in small cubicles. When the study was getting underway, the service provider had plans to redevelop the property as a drop-in center, and thus needed the lodging house residents to relocate.

[22]    The New York, New York Agreement was a response to the lack of housing for homeless persons with serious mental illness in New York City. Implemented in 1990, the agreement was to place 5,225 homeless persons with serious mental illness into housing and to develop 3,314 units of supportive housing. A third wave that will produce 9,000 units is just getting underway.

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