Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities. Crowding


Homeless children living doubled up or in motels and hotels, like homeless children in shelters, often experience high levels of crowding, typically indexed by the number of people per room. Residential crowding, across a number of studies reviewed by Evans (2006), has been associated with social withdrawal, elevated levels of aggression, psychological distress, poor behavioral adjustment in school, and lower levels of social and cognitive competency. Parents in crowded homes talk less to infants, are less responsive to young children, and are more likely to engage in punitive parenting than other parents. Crowding effects appear in studies with good controls for socio-economic status and in laboratory and field experiments.

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