HHS Strategic Goals and Objectives - FY 2001 . Appendix A - Coordination


Many programs within the Department have goals, objectives, and target populations that appear similar. Likewise, many Department programs appear to duplicate or overlap programs in other Federal agencies. Many state, local, and private sector programs also have goals, objectives, and target populations in common with Department programs. Because programs appear to have overlapping goals and constituencies, it is often assumed that a high degree of waste and duplication is occurring. In fact, although many programs work to achieve similar goals and objectives, the specific activities that they undertake to accomplish the goals are often decisively different and represent complementary, not duplicative, approaches to addressing a common problem.

For example, a number of Department programs spend resources to reduce the use of tobacco (Objective 1.1). The same is true of state and local health departments and other public and private health organizations. While working to achieve the same goal, the various agencies and organizations actually play quite different roles. CDC's Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion program provides funds to states for the development of tobacco prevention programs. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is charged with implementing the Synar Amendment and provides funds to states for compliance activities to prevent the sale of tobacco to minors. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) supports research on ways to reduce nicotine addiction and how to provide better prevention and treatment interventions. The Office of Public Health and Science (OPHS) works with Smoke-Free Kids, US Soccer, and other community coalitions to develop and incorporate prevention programs into their activities.

The example is illustrative of how programs with overlapping goals and objectives can be complementary. The way we make sure programs complement each other is by using a variety of internal and external coordination mechanisms, such as coordinating committees and joint program planning. These mechanisms are thoroughly described in the sections on internal and external coordination that follow.



Over 300 Department programs make up the resource base that HHS deploys to implement the goals and objectives in the strategic plan. Appendix J shows that deployment by program (or aggregated program categories). It is evident from the table that a significant number of programs are deployed to achieve each goal and objective.

Different roles, same goals

The table illustrates the Department's challenge: making sure that each program contributes to the achievement of Department goals and objectives in a way that is complementary and that HHS resources are used efficiently. How the challenge is met and how coordination is achieved are critical. In fact, it is achieved in a number of ways:


The Department maintains a number of planning systems that enable coordination of program operations across the operating divisions. In this respect, strategic planning, annual performance planning, and the annual budget process are primary tools for reviewing program priorities and harmonizing program activities. For example, the strategy sections of strategic and annual performance plans are used to plan and delineate the complementary roles of the various programs for achieving a particular goal. Additionally, the budget process gives Department staff the chance to review resource allocations each year and eliminate overlap and duplication.

In addition to these major planning systems, the Department manages a process for coordinating development of legislative proposals and regulation. More broadly, the Department engages in an annual planning process for research, demonstration, and evaluation activities. This planning involves representatives from all HHS agencies.


Both to advance important areas of policy interest and to promote program coordination, HHS routinely designates special initiatives and assigns management responsibility to two or more operating divisions. The Department's health disparity and bioterrorism initiatives are representative of these initiatives. The Initiative to Improve Health Care Quality is another example, through which representatives from all HHS agencies collaborate to make information on quality easier for consumers to use (Objective 4.2), strengthen value-based purchasing by the Department (Objective 3.5), improve the quality of health care services delivered directly by Department programs (Goal 4), expand research that improves quality (Goals 4 and 6), and measure national health care quality (Goals 4 and 5). Joint management works well to coalesce program activities and allocate resources in a way that promotes efficiency and coordination. These special initiatives are subsequently incorporated into the strategic and performance plans.


On a more permanent basis, HHS establishes coordinating committees as a way to integrate a variety of internal activities. These established coordinating bodies include, for example:

  • The Public Health Council (consisting of Agency heads or deputies) meets quarterly to ensure coordination and communication across public health and other HHS agencies for the purpose of sustaining and improving the nation's public health infrastructure.

  • The Data Council advises the Secretary on data policy and serves as a forum for consideration of those issues. The council also coordinates the Department's data collection and analysis and ensures effective long-range planning for surveys and other investments in major data collection.

  • The Oral Health Coordinating Committee examines issues of oral health that cut across all HHS agencies, such as oral health information needed for decision making and efforts related to reducing disparities and promoting multi-agency oral health initiatives.

  • The Interagency Narcotic Treatment Policy Review board coordinates federal policy regarding the use of methadone. The board helps ensure that agencies responsible for regulatory and oversight activities, funding, technical assistance, and policy development meet, deliberate, and review and comment on pertinent agency/departmental issues. Membership includes representatives from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), SAMHSA, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Veterans Affairs, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP).

  • The Fetal Alcohol Interagency Coordinating Committee plans and reviews research work on fetal alcohol syndrome among NIH, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), and the Indian Health Services (IHS).

  • The Healthy People 2010 steering committee includes all HHS Operating Divisions/Agencies, and the Healthy People Consortium is comprised of 650 national and state organizations. Together, these bodies coordinate, advise, Healthy People 2010 logo and plan activities for measuring and implementing health and social services throughout the Department.

  • The Secretary's Council on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention serves to further advise the Department with regard to the development, monitoring, measurement, and implementation of Healthy People 2010.

  • The Minority Initiatives Steering Committee and Minority Initiatives Coordinating Committee coordinate efforts to improve the health of racial and ethnic groups across the Department.

  • The HHS Chief Financial Officers Council ensures that HHS's financial management policy and reporting support program missions by providing accurate, timely, and useful information for decision making. The council is also responsible for reporting financial information to the Congress, Office of Management and Budget (OMB), General Accounting Office (GAO), the Department of the Treasury, and the public.

  • The HHS Chief Information Officer (CIO) Advisory Council includes membership from each of the HHS agencies. The council advises the Chief Information Officer on the promotion of Department-wide Information Resources Management (IRM) goals, strategic policies and initiatives, and enhanced communications among the agencies. In addition, CIO Advisory Council members serve on the HHS Information Technology Investment Review Board.



Almost all health and human service programs entrusted to the Department intersect in some manner with programs of other federal agencies and the public and private sector. This diversity compounds the challenge of coordinating HHS programs with those outside the Department. In addition, Department programs are organized and delivered in a variety of ways, ranging from the direct provision of services where the Department supports most of the costs, to block grants to states where the Department supports a fraction of the costs. This diversity means that the mechanisms for achieving coordination are necessarily as varied as the programs. Coordinating mechanisms can be imbedded in service delivery partnerships. They can be formal mechanisms such as coordinating councils. They can be ad hoc mechanisms such as meetings or workgroups. Department staff are also directly responsible for coordination. For example, the HHS Regional Directors help ensure that Department programs and activities are coordinated with state, local, tribal, and private organizations in their regions. A discussion of two of these coordination mechanisms follows.


Although the Department delivers services directly under several programs-most notably the Food and Drug Administration and the Indian Health Service-HHS relies on a large network of state, local, and tribal government organizations, contractors, and private entities to help develop,

HHS relies on a large network of state, local, and tribal government organizations, contractors, and private entities to help develop, finance, and carry out the goals, objectives, and programs that we share in common.

finance, and carry out the goals, objectives, and programs that we share in common. Program services delivered by these organizations range from financing and providing health services (Medicaid, community health services) to services that help families, communities, and individuals improve their well-being (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, Head Start, refugee assistance).

Several aspects of coordination are essential to these service delivery partnerships. First, the role of each partner must be well defined. Second, there must be a mutual understanding of the goals and objectives of the partnership. Finally, there must be a continuing dialogue between the partners to address ongoing policy and operational issues. Coordination is achieved in a variety of ways. Some of the most common mechanisms are:

  • Consultation with partners in the development of the program goals and objectives that we have in common.

  • Cooperative partnership agreements (grants, contracts, memoranda of understanding).

  • Partnership meetings.

  • Advisory councils.


A number of federal agencies have goals and objectives and run programs that are parallel to or intersect with those of the Department. Often the people being served are the same or similar. For example, the Department's Food and Drug Administration shares food safety and inspection responsibilities with the Department of Agriculture. When responsibilities are shared, it is

FDA-USDA relationship

important to ensure that efforts are harmonized, not duplicated. This is done in a number of ways, such as joint planning, coordinating councils and workgroups, and cooperative agreements. Several examples illustrate the priority placed on effective coordination between federal agencies and how coordination is accomplished:

  • The Interagency Task Force on Children's Health Outreach is responsible for bringing approximately 11 federal departments together to develop ways to educate families about and enroll children in Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program. This involves developing outreach materials and coordinating outreach activities of the participating agencies.

  • The White House Council on Youth Violence is responsible for coordinating the development of Federal policy, research agendas, and program activities dealing with youth violence. It includes the Departments of Health and Human Services, Education, Labor, and Justice.

  • Approximately 11 federal agencies are part of the Interagency Committee on School Health. The committee is tasked with jointly identifying needs and facilitating the planning of strategies to improve federal leadership in addressing school health needs.

  • Drug control efforts are coordinated by the Office of National Drug Control Policy through a comprehensive strategic plan that outlines the distinct roles and responsibilities of various federal agencies in the war on drugs.

  • The Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force (QuIC) ensures that all federal agencies involved in purchasing, providing, studying, or regulating health care services are working in a coordinated way toward the common goal of improving quality of care.

In addition to the examples of external coordination provided above, the following table (Table A) provides a more comprehensive list of HHS program activities that intersect with the programs and activities of organizations outside the Department and where coordination is important. The table also shows how coordination is achieved.




GOAL 1: Reduce the Major Threats to the Health and Productivity of All Americans

Objective Crosscutting
Objective 1.1
Reduce tobacco use, especially among youth Media campaigns and education programs to prevent tobacco use CDC, NIH, SAMHSA, HIS State and local health departments, health promotion and research organizations Cooperative agreements, HHS Interagency Working Group on Tobacco
   Surveillance - support for national longitudinal study of adolescent health NIH, CDC Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Joint planning and funding
Objective 1.2
Reduce the incidence and impact of injuries and violence in American society Development of strategies and dissemination of information for reducing youth violence CDC, NIH, SAMHSA Departments of Education, Justice, and Labor White House Council on Youth Violence
   Surveillance/research on the causes of injury and violence and development of prevention strategies CDC, HIS, Administration for Children and Families (ACF), SAMHSA Departments of Justice, Labor, and Transportation; state and local health departments; Consumer Product Safety Commission; consumer product safety organizations Cooperative agreements and contracts
   Media campaigns and education programs to prevent violence and injury CDC, HIS, ACF, SAMHSA, HRSA, Administration on Aging (AoA) Departments of Justice, Labor Transportation; Consumer Product Safety Commission; consumer product safety organizations; multiple state, tribal, and local government agencies; community organizations Cooperative agreements, joint planning
   Research on violence and injury to children NIH, CDC, ACF, HRSA Departments of Education and Justice, Brain Injury Association, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, World Health Organization Cooperative agreements
   Research on elder abuse and neglect NIH, AoA, CDC Census Bureau Interagency agreements
Objective 1.3
Improve the diet and the level of physical activity of Americans Development of national dietary guidelines and nutrition research CDC, OPHS, NIH, ACF, AoA, FDA, HRSA, IHS, SAMHSA Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Veterans Affairs, and Commerce; NSF, AID, NASA, and Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP); American Public Health Association Cooperative agreements and contracts
   Physical activity/fitness and healthy diet promotion/education CDC, HRSA, OPHS, AoA, IHS, President s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Department of Agriculture; state and local health departments; tribes; other national, state and local organization promoting healthy behaviors Cooperative agreements, contracts, joint planning
Objective 1.4
Reduce alcohol abuse and prevent under age drinking Alcohol addiction treatment services SAMHSA, HIS State, tribal, and local health departments; community treatment organizations Joint planning
   Alcohol abuse prevention campaigns SAMHSA, HRSA Departments of Transportation, Education and Justice; state and local health departments, community organizations Joint planning
Objective 1.5
Reduce the abuse and illicit use of drugs Development and Implementation of National Drug Control Policy SAMHSA, CDC, NIH, FDA ONDCP; Departments of Education, Justice, Treasury, Housing and Urban Development and Transportation ONDCP National Drug Control Strategic Plan
   Drug addiction treatment services SAMHSA, HIS State, tribal, and local health departments; correctional institutions; community drug treatment organizations Joint national and regional meetings
   Implementation of the federal drug free workplace program SAMHSA All federal agencies Central policy guidance and oversight of federal agency programs
   Research on prevention and treatment of drug abuse HRSA, NIH, SAMHSA, CDC Departments of Energy, Labor, Justice and Veterans Affairs; National Science Foundation; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; institutions of higher education Cooperative agreements; Attorney General s Methamphetamine Task Force; Interagency Narcotic Treatment Policy Review Board
Objective 1.6
Reduce unsafe sexual behaviors Prevention programs (domestic) OPHS, CDC, HRSA, IHS, SAMHSA State and local departments of education and health, community prevention programs HIV/AIDS Prevention Community Planning Process
   Prevention programs (international) NIH, CDC USAID, World Health Organization, UNAIDS, European Union, Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom, Rockefeller Foundation International working group on Microbicides, Sexually Transmitted Disease Diagnostics Initiative, Syphilis Research Initiative
   Surveillance CDC State and local health departments, other national and community organizations Cooperative agreements
Objective 1.7
Reduce the incidence and impact of infectious diseases Surveillance CDC, FDA, NIH Department of Agriculture, state and local health departments, international health organizations Cooperative agreements
   Prevention/control (immunization) programs CDC, FDA, IHS, HCFA, HRSA State and local health departments, state Medicaid agencies, health care providers, voluntary health organizations Joint planning, cooperative agreements
   Research NIH, FDA, CDC, AHRQ, HRSA Environmental Protection Agency, Departments of Defense, Veterans Affairs, and Agriculture Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance
Objective 1.8
Reduce the impact of environmental factors on human health Biomonitoring NIH, CDC, Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR) Association of Public Health Laboratories State and local health agencies Joint projects, cooperative agreements


GOAL 2: Improve the Economic and Social Well-being of Individuals, Families, and Communities in the United States

Objective Crosscutting
Objective 2.1
Improve the economic independence of low income families, including those receiving welfare Education/Job Skills/ Training for welfare and low income persons ACF Departments of Labor and Education Interagency Unified Planning Workgroup
Development of ongoing guidance for Public Housing Authorities and local welfare agencies to target services and assistance to families receiving welfare and housing assistance. ACF Department of Housing and Urban Development Cooperative agreements; joint planning
Objective 2.2
Increase the parental involvement and financial support of noncustodial parents in the lives of their children Locating delinquent parents and enforcing child support orders ACF Departments of Justice, State, and Treasury; state child enforcement agencies Expanded federal Parent Locator Service
Objective 2.3
Improve the healthy development and learning readiness of preschool children Delivery of early childhood health, education, and developmental services ACF, HRSA, HCFA, IHS, OPHS, SAMHSA Department of Education; other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local education agencies; state and local health departments; state Medicaid agencies; health care providers; Head Start providers; day care providers Joint planning, interagency agreements, cooperative agreements, Interagency Children s Health Outreach Task Force
   Early childhood research ACF, NIH Department of Education and other federal departments and agencies Early Childhood Research Working Group
   Early education of children with disabilities ACF Departments of Education, Labor, and other federal departments and agencies Federal Interagency Coordinating Council
Objective 2.4
Improve the safety and security of children and youth Child abuse prevention, child welfare and independent living support services ACF, SAMHSA Departments of Justice and Labor Joint planning, committees
Objective 2.5
Increase the proportion of older Americans who stay active and healthy Research NIH, AoA, CDC, President s Council for Physical Fitness and Sports National Academy of Sciences, NASA Interagency agreements
Objective 2.6
Increase independence and quality of life of persons with long-term-care needs Long-term-care services HCFA, AoA, Office for Civil Rights (OCR), SAMHSA, NIH State developmental disability agencies, long-term-care providers, state and local agencies on aging, state Medicaid agencies Joint planning
   Employment of adults with disabilities AoA, ACF Departments of Labor and Education and other federal agencies Presidential Task Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities
Objective 2.7
Improve the economic and social development of distressed communities Community development/social services ACF, HRSA Department of Housing and Urban Development, local community development and social service organizations Joint planning


GOAL 3: Improve Access to Health Services and Ensure the Integrity of the Nation's Health Entitlement and Safety Net Programs

Objective Crosscutting
Objective 3.1
Increase the percentage of the nation s children and adults who have health insurance coverage Oversight of HIPAA HCFA Departments of Labor and Treasury Joint Regulatory Development
   Enrollment outreach HCFA, ACF, HRSA Departments of Agriculture and Education, child care providers, early education providers, state and local health departments, state Medicaid agencies Partnership agreements, joint planning
   Resolution of consumer issues HCFA DOL, state departments of insurance, National Association of Insurance Commissioners Ad-hoc meetings, joint planning, participation in quarterly meetings
Objective 3.2
Eliminate disparities in health access and outcomes Nondiscrimination in access to quality health care OCR, AHRQ, HCFA, CDC, HRSA, OPHS State and local health departments, state Medicaid agencies, health care providers, state and local provider organizations, medical societies, universities, faith communities, civil rights advocacy and community-based organizations Local coalitions
Objective 3.3
Increase the availability of primary health care services for underserved populations Financing and delivery of health care services for underserved populations HCFA, HRSA, IHS, SAMHSA State and local health departments, state Medicaid agencies, health care providers Joint planning
Objective 3.4
Protect and improve the health and satisfaction of beneficiaries in Medicare and Medicaid National Medicare Education Program HCFA Employers, unions, major trade and professional societies, consumer and senior advocacy groups Joint planning with Medicare "Alliance Network" of over 130 national groups
   Standardized data collection, measurement, analysis, and intervention strategies HCFA, AHRQ Departments of Labor and Defense and Veterans Administration Joint planning through the Quality Improvement Interagency Coordinating Task Force (QuIC)
Objective 3.5
Enhance the fiscal integrity of HCFA programs and purchase the best value health care for beneficiaries Anti-fraud and abuse programs HCFA, OIG, AoA Department of Justice Interagency agreements
Objective 3.6
Improve the health status of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) Expanding health care services, community development, child protection services; targeted health improvement initiatives IHS,  HCFA ACF/ Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Departments of Interior, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, and Justice Interagency agreements, and joint planning
Objective 3.7
Increase the availability and effectiveness of services for the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS Financing of HIV/AIDS treatment services HRSA, HCFA, IHS State and local health departments, state Medicaid agencies, community health providers, AI/AN tribes Joint planning, interagency agreements
Objective 3.8
Increase the availability and effectiveness of mental health care services Building community-based systems of care SAMHSA, HRSA, ACF Departments of Education and Justice, state and community mental health service providers, substance abuse service providers, homeless service providers Joint planning
   Financing of mental health services SAMHSA HCFA, HRSA State and community mental health service providers, state Medicaid agencies Joint planning
Integrating persons with severe mental disabilities into the community. HCFA, SAMHSA Departments of Housing and Urban Development, Labor, Agriculture Joint planning
Objective 3.9
Increase the availability and effectiveness of health services for children with special health care needs Delivering health care services to children with special health care needs HRSA, HCFA Departments of Education and Labor, state and local health departments, state Medicaid agencies, President s Council on Disabilities Joint planning
   Provision of information and education on health care resources for children with special health care needs HRSA State and local health departments, health care providers, American Academy of Pediatrics, community organizations Joint planning


GOAL 4: Improve the Quality of Health Care and Human Services

Objective Crosscutting
Objective 4.1
Enhance the appropriate use of effective health services Evaluating and disseminating the results of effectiveness research AHRQ, HCFA, HRSA, NIH, CDC Institutions of higher education, public and private health care and medical societies Clearinghouse
   Quality improvement initiatives AHRQ, HCFA, HRSA Department of Labor, and all federal departments with health care responsibility Joint planning through the Quality Improvement Interagency Coordinating Task Force
Objective 4.2
Increase consumer and patient use of health care quality information Development and dissemination of health care quality information HCFA, HRSA, AHRQ, IHS Departments of Labor, Defense, and Veterans Affairs; and other federal departments with health care responsibility Joint planning, Quality Improvement Interagency Coordinating Task Force, interagency agreements
Objective 4.3
Improve consumer and patient protection Implementation of consumer protections AHRQ, HCFA, HRSA, NIH Department of Labor, and other federal departments with health care responsibility Joint planning through the Quality Improvement Interagency Coordinating Task Force
   Focus on improving quality of care and elimination of abuse in long-term-care facilities HCFA, AoA, SAMHSA Department of Justice, Nursing Home Medical Directors Association, American Dietetic Association, State survey agencies Cooperative agreements
Objective 4.4
Develop knowledge that improves the quality and effectiveness of human services practice Research ACF, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) Institutions of higher education, foundations, state human service agencies Inter-agency work group, annual conferences


GOAL 5: Improve the Nation's Public Health Systems

Objective Crosscutting
Objective 5.1
Improve the capacity of the public health system to identify and respond to threats to the health of the Nation s population Development of bioterrorism and other surveillance and response networks CDC, OPHS, HRSA, SAMHSA, NIH, FDA Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Justice, and Transportation; Federal Emergency Management Agency; state and local health departments Cooperative agreements, Federal Interagency Workgroup
   Upgrading the public health information infrastructure CDC, HRSA, SAMHSA State and local health and substance abuse prevention and treatment agencies Cooperative agreements
Objective 5.2
Improve the safety of food, drugs, medical devices, and biological products Food inspection and outbreak surveillance FDA, CDC Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, state and local health departments Federal Council on Food Safety, Foodborne Outbreak Coordinating Group, cooperative agreements, integrated surveillance networks (e.g., FoodNet)
   Food safety research, education and information dissemination to regulated industries FDA Department of Agriculture, institutions of higher education, National Center for Food Safety and Technology, Joint Institute for Food Safety Research and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Law Institute, Drug Information Association Advisory Councils, cooperative agreements, Memoranda of Understanding
   Inspection of imports FDA U.S. Customs Service Cooperative development of processes
   Blood products and vaccine safety FDA, NIH, CDC American Red Cross, state health departments, blood banks, WHO, American Academy of Pediatrics Collaborative standard setting


GOAL 6: Strengthen the Nation's Health Science Research Enterprise and Enhance its Productivity

Objective Crosscutting
Objective 6.1
Advance the scientific understanding of normal and abnormal biological functions and behaviors Scientific research NIH, CDC, FDA, AQHR Extramural research community: universities, hospitals, other research centers Other federal agencies: NASA, Department of Education, and Environmental Protection Agency, etc. Research partnerships

Joint program/project planning and coordination

         Private industry Technology transfer agreements
Objective 6.2
Improve our understanding of how to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease and disability See Objective 6.1         
Objective 6.3
Enhance our understanding of how to improve the quality, effectiveness, utilization, financing, and cost-effectiveness of health services Health services research AHRQ, NIH, CDC, HCFA, HRSA, SAMHSA Institutions of higher education, research foundations, voluntary health organizations Cooperative agreements, grants, contracts, research conferences
Objective 6.4
Accelerate private-sector development of new drugs, biologic therapies, and medical technology Harmonizing regulatory standards FDA Foreign governments and organizations International committees and organizations
Objective 6.5
Strengthen and diversify the base of well-qualified health researchers Training and career development programs NIH, HCFA, HRSA, AHRQ, CDC Institutions of higher education Advisory committees, joint grant announcements
Objective 6.6
Improve the communication and application of health research results Health communication and education NIH, CDC, FDA, AHRQ, HRSA, HCFA, President s Council for Physical Fitness and Sports Institutions of higher education, voluntary health-related organizations, community organizations, state and local health departments, private sector organizations Memoranda of understanding, partnership agreements, joint conferences and meetings
Objective 6.7
Strengthen mechanisms for ensuring the protection of human subjects in research and the integrity of the research process Strengthening institutional review boards NIH, OPHS, FDA Institutions of higher education, foundations Meetings, conferences, technical assistance