The Health of Disconnected Low-Income Men. Notes


  1. In 2010, the year for the data estimates, the federal poverty threshold was $11,344 for a single adult and $17,552 for a family of three with one child. Twice the poverty level was $22,688 for a single adult and $35,104 for a family of three (
  2. Data on health insurance coverage are for 2008–10 and are based on data from the ACS (2008–10).
  3. The rate of employer-provided coverage for low-income adults age 19–64 is 24 percent compared with 71 percent for nonelderly adults with incomes between 250 and 400 percent of FPL and 85 percent for those with incomes above 400 percent of FPL (Kaiser State Health Facts, Also see Margaret Simms, Karina Fortuny, Marla McDaniel, and William Monson, “Education and Employment of Disconnected Low-Income Men” (Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, 2013), Race, Place, and Poverty Symposium Issue Brief 2.
  4. “Medicaid by Population,” Nondisabled adults without dependent children are not eligible for Medicaid regardless of their income. States can cover them using state-only funding or by obtaining a federal waiver (Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured 2013).
  5. “Adult Income Eligibility Limits at Application as a Percent of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), January 2013,” Kaiser State Health Facts,
  6. African American refers to non-Hispanic African American or black, and includes those who identified themselves in the decennial census as black or African American only. White refers to non-Hispanic white, and includes those who identified themselves in the census as white only. People of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Respondents who identified as other or two or more races are grouped under “other non-Hispanic.”
  7. Authors’ tabulations of the ACS 2008–10.
  8. Data on health outcomes for 2010 are based on Urban Institute tabulations of the 2010 BRFSS. Family income of less than $35,000 is used for a proxy of low-income status. For additional indicators on health care access and methodology, see Kenney et al. (2012). The BRFSS is accessible at
  9. The BRFSS asks whether the respondent has seen a doctor for a routine checkup less than 12 months ago. A routine checkup is a general physical exam, not an exam for a specific injury, illness, or condition.

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