Further Progress, Persistent Constraints: Findings From a Second Survey of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program. WtW Programs Still Strive to Serve a Diverse Population


Grantees' more modest expectations for participation in WtW have nevertheless left the projected makeup of WtW's clientele essentially unchanged. Overall, second grantee survey responses suggested few changes in the projected characteristics of the individuals who WtW grantees plan to enroll (Table III.2).

Young women are still expected to comprise the majority of WtW participants. Consistent with WtW's focus on TANF recipients, respondents to the second grantee survey expect the majority of their clients to be women between the ages of 20 and 40. No major differences were found in the demographic characteristics of the overall population of participants that formula and competitive grantees expect to serve, nor in the populations projected by those grantees that responded to both surveys.


  Projected Participantsa Participants
Enrolled to Date
Characteristic First Grantee
Second Grantee
    Male 18.8 16.7 11.3
    Female 81.2 83.3 88.7
    American Indian/Alaska Nativeb 3.7 2.4 2.8
    Asian 3.3 3.4 2.8
    Black/African American 40.5 48.1 43.0
    Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander 0.8 0.7 0.5
    White 51.7 45.4 50.9
    Hispanic or Latino 27.4 21.0 19.2
    Not Hispanic or Latino 72.6 79.0 80.8
    Under 20 11.2 5.6 5.6
    20 to 24 22.7 22.7 22.4
    25 to 40 51.3 58.2 59.3
    Over 40 14.7 13.6 12.7
Source: National Evaluation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program, First Grantee Survey (November 1998 -February 1999) and Second Grantee Survey (November 1999 - February 2000).

a Estimates based on projected percentages reported by responding grantees, weighted by their projected total enrollment. Categories may not sum to 100 percent, due to data rounding.

b The grantee survey sample does not include tribal WtW programs. Thus, projected enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the WtW initiative overall is underestimated.

Noncustodial parents, typically fathers, remain an important target group.(2)  Consistent with the emphasis on noncustodial parents in WtW's eligibility rules and with many grantees' explicit targeting of this eligible group, men are still expected to account for about 20 percent of WtW participants. About 13 percent of all WtW grantees place special emphasis on serving noncustodial parents. In the second survey, 62 organizations reported that they expect males to account for 30 to 100 percent of their WtW participants; their actual enrollment projections range from 10 to 1,820 male WtW participants, and average about 279.

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