This section examines the prevalence of multiple potential employment barriers among TANF recipients and how multiple barriers are related to employment status and work history. Appendix D Table V-a shows that about 62% of the survey respondents had three or more employment liabilities (including 18% who had three, 15% who had four, and 29% who had five or more). Following are the employment barriers we studied:
- human capital deficits: 21% had two or more, including no high school diploma or GED, worked for pay less than 50% of the time since turning 18, and performed fewer than four common job skills.
personal or family challenges: 39% had two or more, including physical health problems, family health problems, pregnancy, mental health problems, chemical dependency, severe physical domestic violence in the past year, presence of a possible learning disability, a criminal record, and English language problems.
situational or logistical challenges: 41% had two or more, including transportation problems, child care problems, or unstable housing in the past year, and one or more “major” neighborhood problems.