a. Tabulated only for cases with female heads, based on modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale used in the University of Michigan's
Women's Employment Study.
b. Moderate physical violence: pushing, grabbing, shoving, slapping, kicking or biting.
c. Severe physical violence: hitting, beating, choking, using or threatening use of a weapon, or forcing sexual activity.
d. Any severe physical violence in the past ever was used to signify a barrier to employment in the Women's Employment Study of the
University of Michigan. Severe physical violence includes hitting, beating, choking, using or threatening use of a weapon, or forcing sexual
e. Physical threats: threatening to hit with a fist or object, or throwing anything that could harm.
f. Coercive threats: threatening to take children away, to harm individual or friends, to turn into child protective services or welfare agency,
harassing at work or school, or coercing into doing illegal things.