|Potential Assets for Employment|
|High school / GED or more||60||53||56|
|Substantial work experiencea||86||70***||76|
|Performed four or more common job tasks||76||69||72|
|Potential Liabilities for Employment|
|Personal and Family Challenges|
|Physical health problemb||16||24**||21|
|Child or other family member or friend with a health problem or special needc||36||33||35|
|Mental health probleme||15||31***||25|
|Severe physical domestic violence in past yeard||11||14||13|
|Possible presence of learning disability||10||13||12|
|Difficulty with English||3||2||2|
|Logistical and Situational Challenges|
|Any perceived discrimination by potential employerj||19||22||20|
|Perceived problem neighborhood characteristicsk||53||56||55|
|Source: MPR's 2001-02 survey of Illinois TANF cases and administrative data from the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Agency.
Notes: The survey data have been weighted to be representative of all single-parent TANF recipients in Illinois. Survey item nonresponse may cause the sample sizes for specific variables to be smaller than those shown. Rounding may cause percentages to sum to something other than 100. We conducted two-tailed t-tests (for continuous variables) and chi-square tests (for categorical variables) for differences between employed and not employed case heads.
*/**/*** Difference between cases with/without an employed head is statistically significant at the .10/.05/.01 level.
a Worked for pay 50 percent or more of time since turning age 18.
b Poor or fair overall health and physical functioning in the lowest quartile.
c Cases with a child with health, behavioral, or special need or those caring for an elderly, disabled, or sick family member or friend.
d Tabulated only for females (sample size = 413).
e High level of nonspecific psychological distress or probable major depression.
f Probable alcohol or drug dependence.
g Has had two or more arrests since 1996.
h Self-reported problems that prevented case head from participating in work, education, or training during the past year.
i Having been evicted or moving two or more times in the past 12 months.
j Tabulated only for cases who have worked for pay (n = 401).
k At least one neighborhood characteristic is perceived by case head to be a big problem.