The search terms yielded 465 total references. Of these, 63 were identified as potentially relevant through a screen of the abstracts. To be eligible for inclusion, a publication needed to discuss the use of episodes for performance measurement and/or payment, the attribution of responsibility for the episode of care, or grouping individual services into episodes. - During the abstraction, 26 additional publications were eliminated as either being off topic or not available even through interlibrary loan. An additional 23 publications were included through the search of the gray literature. In total, we reviewed 60 publications and summarize the findings in the sections that follow.