The Evaluation of the Tribal Welfare-to-Work Grants Program: Initial Implementation Findings. Study Sites


Appendix A presents a profile of each of the 10 WtW grantees in the study. These profiles describe the economic context in which the grantee WtW program operates, as well as the program's structure, model, and services provided.

Grantees were selected to ensure diversity in the five attributes discussed, but they were also chosen based on the comprehensive plans and innovative approaches described in the WtW grant proposals. When more than one grantee met the five diversity criteria, the one with the most comprehensive or innovative proposal was selected to participate in the study. Two alternates were selected for each of the 10 grantees selected, in case some of the grantees might be unable to participate in the study. Despite the diversity of the WtW grantees in the study sample, they were not selected at random, and no attempt is made in this report to generalize the study findings to other tribal WtW grantees, tribes, or tribal consortia.

The grantees in the study were diverse in other attributes as well (see Table 1.3). While there are inconsistencies between the data reported in published sources and the data provided at site visits, Table 1.3 does give a sense of the variation across tribes and of the relative nature of differences among the grantees. For example, the size of the Tanana Chiefs Conference enrolled member population is less than five percent of the Navajo Nation; roughly similar to that of Red Lake, the Cherokee, and Three Affiliated Tribes; and slightly more than half that of the White Earth Tribe.(5) The labor forces of the Tanana Chiefs Conference and the Kickapoo Tribe are small compared with those of the Cherokee, the Navajo Nation, and the Three Affiliated Tribes. The number of enrolled members ranges from 326 in the Kickapoo Tribe to more than 234,000 in the Navajo Nation. There is corresponding variation in the size of the grantee labor force, ranging from 142 (Tanana Chiefs Conference) to 41,451 (Navajo Nation).

Table 1.3
Other Attributes of study sample


Land Area
(Square Miles)
Population Labor Forcea
Enrolled Members Residents

California Indian Manpower Consortium, Inc. (CIMC)

NA NA 34,000 23,384

Eastern Band of Cherokee (EBCI)

56,688 10,000 6,311 2,366

Kickapoo Tribe of Kansas

4,879 326 478 350

The Klamath Tribes

372 3,248 3,748 735

Navajo Nation

16,224,896 234,786 234,786 41,451

Nez Perce Tribe

750,000 3,300 16,159 743

Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians

837,736 9,264 7,974 871

Tanana Chiefs Conference, Inc. (TCC)

138,240 11,086 6,191 142

Three Affiliated Tribes (TAT)

1,000,000 10,500 5,246 1,059

White Earth Reservation Tribal Council

837,120 20,989 6,491 765
Source: Tiller (1996), except when more recent data were available from the grantee.
a The reported Labor Force includes unemployed people who are able to work.
NA = not available.

It is common for some (often, many) tribal members to live away from the reservation or tribal lands.(6) In Table 1.3, "residents" refers to all people living on or near the reservation, including tribal members, other Indians, and non-Indians. Some reservations (such as Red Lake) have few non-Indian residents, while others (such as Nez Perce) may have more non-Indian residents than tribal members, as a result of the General Allotment Act of 1887, which opened large amounts of tribal lands for homesteading by non-Indians.