Most tribes have an agency or department responsible for helping tribal members become job ready and obtain employment. Most WtW grantees provide a range of employment-related services drawing on funds from different programs such as NEW and JTPA and from child care funding sources as appropriate and allowed. Depending on the size of the tribe, one person or office may administer the WtW, NEW, and JTPA programs (for example, Kickapoo), or many employees may be stationed at a variety of sites operating the programs (for example, Navajo Nation, California Indian Manpower Consortium, Tanana Chiefs Conference).
Tribal employment and training agencies have multiple sources of funding. They include federal programs (for example, JTPA, NEW, Summer Youth Employment, WtW), state programs, and direct tribal funding. These agencies coordinate services and activities (for example, vocational education, adult education, social services, housing, substance abuse) with other tribal programs. They also coordinate services and activities with state programs, federal programs operated by states or counties (for example, unemployment insurance, TANF, food stamps), other federal programs (for example, Social Security, AmeriCorps, Job Corps), and private-sector employers and nonprofit organizations (for example, Goodwill Industries, faith-based organizations).
The place of the employment and training agency (E&T) within the tribe's organizational structure varies. For 8 of the 10 grantees in the study, the E&T agency is a component of a larger department or division (such as workforce development, human resources, employment, education, or labor). For two of the grantees (California Indian Manpower Consortium and Red Lake), the E&T agency is independent, reporting only to the head of the executive branch (tribal chairman, governor, president, chief, executive director) and to the tribal legislature (tribal council, business committee, corporation board).