As in nontribal WtW programs, tribal WtW programs emphasize job readiness training and helping participants overcome self-doubts about entry into the workforce. All of the grantees in the study provide some type of preemployment job readiness preparation for WtW participants--generally workshops or individualized counseling by project staff. Workshop sessions typically cover self-esteem, assertiveness training, motivation, time management, decision making, and career identification. They also cover resume writing, goal setting, communication/interpersonal skills, meaning and value of work, interviewing techniques, and strategies for retaining jobs and avoiding conflicts with supervisors and coworkers. Project instructors use a variety of teaching techniques in the workshops. These include small-group discussions or exercises, presentations by the instructor or special speakers, role playing, and videos. Participants usually emerge from these workshops with a polished resume and a step-by-step plan for conducting job search activities.
After a participant completes the job readiness workshop, the instructor or the WtW case manager typically works with the participant and the TANF case manager to determine next steps. Based on this decision, the participant's EDP or ISS is updated, including plans for meeting TANF work requirements. Usually, job-ready individuals begin looking for work and individuals who are not yet job ready (lacking job skills or previous job experience) enter a short-term training or work experience activity to enhance employability.