The Evaluation of the Tribal Welfare-to-Work Grants Program: Initial Implementation Findings. Glossary


477 Program

Also referred to simply as "477. Public Law 102-477, the Indian Employment, Training and Related Services Demonstration Act of 1992 authorizes tribal governments to combine federal funds received under formula grant programs related to employment or the world of work under a single plan, with single budget, and a single annual report to the BIA.


AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) was the program administered and funded by federal and State governments to provide financial assistance to needy families. Typically, more than half (55 percent) of the total cost of AFDC payments was funded by the federal government. The TANF block grant replaced the AFDC program.

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 (ANCSA)

Under provisions of ANCSA, Alaska Natives received title to a total of 40 million acres, divided among some 220 Native Villages and 13 Regional Corporations. The Act called for a payment of $462,500,000 (to be made over an 11-year period from funds in the U.S. Treasury), and an additional $500 million in mineral revenues.


A person descended from natives of the Aleutian Islands belonging to the Inuit-Aleut linguistic group, and classified as a Native American.

American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation Program

Provides grants to tribes to assist eligible persons with disabilities to achieve their employment goals. Services may include: medical and psychological assessment, vocational evaluation counseling and guidance, physical and/or mental restoration services which may include therapy, wheelchairs, hearing aids, etc., special adaptive equipment or licenses, job placement, follow-up after placement to assist with worker and employer satisfaction, personal assistance, supported employment and job coaching. Services may be provided after employment to maintain the job. Funded by the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) in the U.S. Department of Education.


AmeriCorps, known as the domestic Peace Corps, has more than 40,000 participants in intensive, results-driven service each year. Projects include teaching children to read, making neighborhoods safer, building affordable homes, and responding to natural disasters. Most AmeriCorps members serve with projects like Habitat for Humanity, the American Red Cross, Boys and Girls Clubs, and other local and national organizations.

Athabascan Indian

The Athabascan people are believed to have come from Asia about 35,000 years ago across Beringia migrating to Alaska and Canada. Includes the Tlingit, Eyak, and Haida peoples as well as the Ingalik, Koyukon, Tanana, Holikachuk, Gwich'in, Han, Upper Tanana, Ahtna, and Tanaina tribes.

Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA)

The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 (Public Law 105-33) was signed into law by President Clinton in August 1997. This legislation funds the WtW Grants Program and mandates an evaluation of the Program. The Act also makes significant changes to the Medicare and Medicaid programs, and expands the services provided by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) through the new Children's Health Insurance Program (Title XXI).

Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)

An agency of the U.S. Department of Interior, generally responsible for administering federal policy for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

Checkerboard Reservation

An Indian reservation on which some land has been purchased or otherwise obtained by non-Indians.

Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)

The Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) provides grants to States, Territories, and tribes to assist low- income families in accessing quality child care for children while parents work or participate in education or training programs. The CCDF brings together four federal child care subsidy programs and allows Child Care Lead Agencies to design comprehensive, integrated service delivery systems to meet the needs of low-income families.

Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)

Created by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Title XXI of the Social Security Act, and sets aside $24 billion over 5 years for States to provide new health coverage for millions of children--the largest children's health care investment since the creation of Medicaid in 1965.


A division within a tribe, involving biological or cultural relations among its members; contributes to the members identity and roles with in the clan and tribe.

Closed Reservation

An Indian reservation where the land is contiguous and either owned by the tribe or is held in trust for the tribe by the United States. Generally the land cannot be sold to or by individuals.

Division of Indian and Native American Programs (DINAP)

The Office within the U.S. Department of Labor that works with the Indian and Native American employment and training service providers. Manages tribal components of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) and WtW Program.

Division of Tribal Services (ACF, DHHS)

Responsible for working with tribal governments and, where appropriate, State and federal agencies regarding the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PL 104-193) and related legislation. DTS is responsible for development of regulations and guidelines and for providing leadership, policy direction, technical assistance, and coordination of tribal services programs.

Economic Development Administration (EDA)

An agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce. EDA works in partnership with State and local governments, regional economic development districts, public and private nonprofit organizations, and Indian tribes to empower communities to plan and implement locally and regionally developed economic development and revitalization strategies to create jobs, reduce unemployment, and alleviate economic distress.

Empowerment Zone (EZ)

Enacted as part of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993.The EZ Program is designed to help historically distressed communities revitalize by using tax incentives to promote business development and job creation. The desired outcome is new businesses activity that creates jobs for zone residents and improves the economic health of a community.

Enterprise Zone/Enterprise Communities

A program of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The aim of the EZ/EC Initiative is to serve as a catalyst for locally generated strategies and activities leading to sustained economic opportunity; build partnerships and community capacity; foster reform in the relationship between citizens and government, as well as among levels of government; and meet high standards for accountability.


There are three culturally distinct groups of Inuit (called Eskimo by some) people who inhabit the region of Alaska. The Inupiat reside on the Seward Peninsula and the King and Diomede Islands. The Central Yupik reside primarily in villages south of Unalakleet, and Siberian Yupik live on St. Lawrence Island. The Inuit people have lived in this region as an identifiable culture for at least 3,000 years.


The General Educational Development (GED) credential is roughly equivalent to a high school diploma and is obtained by passing a series of five tests in areas such as writing skills, social studies, science, interpreting literature and the arts, and mathematics.

Goodwill Industries

A nonprofit organization that provides employment and training services to individuals with disabilities, and with limited work histories. Goodwill has served as a contractor to tribal E&T programs.


An eight-sided dwelling used by the Navajo. Usually made from logs or planks or adobe bricks with sod or clay for filler. The roof is covered with sod.


The name was first used by Columbus to describe the people he encountered in the Americas, believing that he had reached India. The name is now meant to include the aboriginal inhabitants of North and South America.

Indian Commerce Clause

Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of the Constitution: To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes.

Indian Country

"Indian country" refers to Indian reservations, all dependent Indian communities within the borders of the U.S. whether within or without the limits of a State, and all Indian allotments, the Indian titles to which have not been extinguished (18 U.S.C. Section 1151).

Indian Health Service (IHS)

The IHS is an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that is responsible for providing health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives.

Indian Trade and Intercourse Act of 1790

The Act brought all commerce involving Indian tribes under the exclusive control of the federal government.

Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 (PL 93-638)

Also known as ISEAA, recognizes the obligation of the United States to support maximum participation by Native Americans in federal programs and services to Indian communities, including Education. Originally, the ISEAA applied only to the activities and programs of the BIA. Public Law 100-472 (102 Stat. 2285) expanded ISEAA to all bureaus within the Department of the Interior.

Job Corps

Job Corps is the nation's largest and most comprehensive residential education and job training program for at-risk youth, ages 16 through 24. Job Corps is a public-private partnership administered by the U.S. Department of Labor.

Job Training and Partnership Act (JTPA)

Provides training and assistance to dislocated workers and individuals whose income is below the federal poverty level. JTPA assistance may include career assessment services, job seeking and job search preparation, classroom training assistance, and on-the-job training. JTPA also authorizes specialized programs for all eligible youth between the ages of 14 and 21. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) supplanted JTPA.

Minority Business Development Administration (MBDA)

An Agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce. MBDA is the only federal Agency created specifically to foster the creation, growth and expansion of minority-owned businesses in America. The Agency was established in 1969 by Executive Order, and its role was expanded in 1971.

Native Employment Works (NEW)

Authorized under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, NEW is a tribal work activities program that replaced the Tribal Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training (JOBS) Program. The funding level for the NEW Program is set at the FY 1994 level by PRWORA ($7,633,287). Only those Indian Tribes and Alaska Native organizations that operated a Tribal JOBS Program in FY 1995 are eligible for the NEW Program.

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) PL 104-193

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 changed welfare from a federal entitlement program to a time-limited, state run assistance program. PRWORA replaced the AFDC Program with the TANF Block Grant Program. States received increased flexibility to design their own welfare programs. The Act recognizes the obligation of the United States to provide for maximum participation by Native Americans in federal programs and services to Indian communities, including education.


The TANF regulations recognize that Tribes, like States, voluntarily implement a TANF program for needy families and that there may be circumstances under which a Tribe will withdraw from operation of the TANF program. The regulations provide for Tribal retrocession of the TANF program back to the State

Sovereign Immunity

A legal doctrine which, under some circumstances, protects the federal, State, and tribal governments within the United States from lawsuits which might cause those governments to pay out money, real estate, or goods from the governmental treasury.

Summer Youth Employment Program

This program provides grants to States, tribes, and communities for summer youth employment programs. Funds are provided based on unemployment and poverty levels. Program activities enhance basic skills, encourage school completion, provide exposure to the world of work and enhance citizenship skills

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)

Title I of P.L. 104-193 amends part A of title IV of the Social Security Act by replacing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training (JOBS) program and the Emergency Assistance (EA) program with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. Under the new part A of title IV of the Social Security Act, open ended funding and guaranteed individual entitlement to public assistance have been repealed. TANF gives both States and Federally recognized Indian tribes new flexibility in the design of welfare programs, which promote work and responsibility and strengthen families.

Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE)

The most widely used test for adult basic education. The TABE provides measurement of reading, mathematics, and language skills for adults. Assessment using TABE gives the information needed to place learners in the appropriate levels for their particular skill deficiencies.

Tribal Consortia

An organization established by a group of tribes for the purpose of improving services to tribal members. Examples include the Tanana Chiefs Conference (TCC) and the California Indian Manpower Consortium (CIMC).

Tribal Employment Rights

A program designed to ensure the protection of the employment rights of Indians working on or near reservations. Generally, every tribe has a Tribal Employment Rights Office (TERO).

Tribal Gaming

A generic term usually describing casinos, bingo, and other activities involving betting or gambling operated on tribal lands. Tribal gaming operations are regulated, to some degree, at four distinct levels - tribal government, State government, the National Indian Gaming Commission, and federal agencies such as the U.S. Justice Department, the FBI, the IRS and the BIA. Compacts between States and tribes give States some regulatory power over Indian gaming; however, the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) recognizes that the federal government has primary responsibility for the regulation of gaming in "Indian country."

Tribal Welfare-to-Work Grants Program

The portion of the WtW Program used by Indian tribes as authorized by the BBA. The Program is administered by the Division of Indian and Native American Programs (DINAP) in ETA, DOL.

Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998

Required that State Workforce Investment Boards (WIBs) replace Private Industry Councils (PICs) and that States develop 5-year strategic plans. Governors designate local "workforce investment areas" and oversee local WIBs. Youth councils are to be established as a subgroup of the local WIB to guide the development and operation of programs for youth. Customers will benefit from a "One-Stop" delivery system, with career centers in their neighborhoods where they can access core employment services and be referred directly to job training, education, or other services.

Workforce Investment Board (WIB).

Replaces Private Industry Councils (PICs) under WIA.