The Evaluation of the Tribal Welfare-to-Work Grants Program: Initial Implementation Findings. Appendix A: Grantee Profiles

01/29/2005

Contents

Endnotes

Eastern Band of Cherokee

1. Selected Grantee Information

Location: Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina
Size of Reservation: 56,688 acres
Tribal members: 10,000 On/near reservation: 6,311
Size of TANF population: Unknown
Special circumstances: Vibrant reservation economy (gaming)
Unemployment: Less than 12 percent

2. Reservation Economy

The tribe's successful casino operation has encouraged other business development including hotels, restaurants, and a convention center. The casino is the largest employer in Cherokee County, with more than 1,000 employees. The next largest employer is the tribe itself, with more than 500 employees. Tribal employment (mostly in tribal agencies and programs) is expected to grow in the coming years, since the casino revenue allows for a larger tribal budget. There are 11 tribally owned enterprises.

3. Organizational Structure

Program Structure. The Cherokee Education and Training Agency (CETA), which includes the WtW grants program, is a full-service employment and training organization with an annual budget of $1.9 million. The major funding (about $1.2 million) is for education (higher education, adult education, vocational education, and Bureau of Indian Affairs [BIA] education). CETA also administers tribal JTPA programs (adults and youth, total of $320,000 annually), NEW ($90,000), and the Cherokee Health Professionals Recruitment program ($80,000). Tribal members seeking employment, education, or training assistance can come to CETA for services.

Program Funding:

WtW:

FY 1998 $137,415

FY 1999 $146,459

Key Partners. Both Swain County and Jackson County Department of Social Services maintain staff in Cherokee to administer programs such as food stamps, Medicaid, child protective services, and TANF (called Work First in North Carolina). Southwestern Community College and Western Carolina University both have satellite centers at Cherokee and offer vocational training courses as well as degree programs.

Program Office Locations. The WtW program is operated by CETA, located in the tribal headquarters building.

4. Program Model(s)

CETA is a one-stop employment and training program. All employment training, job search, and educational programs are operated by CETA. The WtW program (and WIA, formerly the JTPA program) integrates subsidized employment with support services and education or training. CETA takes an individualized approach to serving tribal members.

5. Program Services and Practices

Target Population(s). The North Carolina Department of Social Services (DSS) can refer clients to CETA, but few individuals who apply for services at CETA come from DSS. Most come in response to a CETA advertisement in the newspaper or flyer or because they know about programs from friends and relatives.

Enrollment. As of October 1999, there were four Cherokee WtW participants.

Outreach and Referral. The main method of outreach is through flyers and newspaper advertisements. The advertisements indicate that CETA can help with child care and provide training and education.

Innovative Practices and/or Services. The tribe has been aggressive and successful in promoting economic development on the reservation. The tribe has operated businesses, formed joint ventures, and attracted private-sector employers to the reservation for many years. Nevertheless, until the opening of Harrah's Casino in 1997, the tribe had more than 50 percent unemployment. Since the opening of the casino, unemployment has decreased to 12 percent, and a 50 percent reduction in the tribal TANF caseload has occurred.

The CETA programs are complemented by the Cherokee Business Development Office and Tribal Business Information Center, which support entrepreneurship and seek to help tribal members become self-sufficient through self-employment.

California Indian Manpower Consortium, Inc. (CIMC)

1. Selected Grantee Information

Location: Sacramento, California
Size of Reservation: 156 Member Tribes/83 Participating in WtW
Tribal members: 95,000 On/near reservation: 34,000
Size of TANF population: 160
Special circumstances: Consortium grantee

2. Reservation Economy

Most of the tribes participating in the CIMC WtW program are located in rural, isolated areas. There are few employers on or near the majority of the reservations. Some tribes have and continue to develop tribal businesses; however, few types of businesses have succeeded. In addition, many tribes have limited resources to plan and develop profitable businesses. For some tribes, gaming has been profitable; however, many tribes have been unable to develop successful gaming operations. Employers near many of the tribal lands include small retail stores, timber-related industries, and the U.S. Forest Service.

3. Organizational Structure

Consortium Structure. CIMC was created in 1978 and incorporated under the laws of California as a private, nonprofit corporation; CIMC has been designated a 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation by the Internal Revenue Service. The membership of the consortium includes federally recognized American Indian tribes, reservations, rancherias, bands, colonies, terminated rancherias, American Indian groups, entities, and organizations (public or private nonprofit) satisfying the requirements set forth in the by-laws of CIMC and in accordance with the consortium agreement formally approved by the membership. A total of 156 member tribes is served by CIMC; 83 of these participate in the WtW program.

The CIMC employment and training program service area includes 41 counties (services are provided only to reservation residents in 4 of these counties), and 98 reservations throughout California. The off-reservation areas in 28 counties receive services through the CIMC Community Services Block Grant (CSBG) program. CIMC administers two DOL/WtW grants on behalf of California tribes participating in the WtW program.

Program Funding:

WtW:

FY 1998 $1,159,094

FY 1999 $1,177,533

Key Partners. Consortium Member Tribes, the Southern California Tribal Chairmen's Association (SCTCA), and 29 counties.

Program Office Locations. In addition to its Chicago-based operations (1), CIMC's service area is divided into eight geographic areas in California: Redding, Hoopa, Ukiah, Sacramento, Fresno, Escondido, Eastern Sierra, and San Jacinto/San Bernardino. CIMC staffs a field office in each of these regions.

4. Program Model(s)

CIMC has historically provided employment and training services for its member tribes and their enrolled membership through each of its regional offices. The WtW program was incorporated into CIMC's one-stop approach to service delivery.

5. Program Services and Practices

Target Population(s). CIMC targets TANF recipients who are enrolled tribal members from among the 83 member tribes that are participating in the WtW program. Referrals come to CIMC through any of the 29 counties within its service area as well as referrals from the tribal TANF program operated by SCTCA. Many of the tribes under the SCTCA TANF program are also member tribes of CIMC.

Enrollment. At the time of the site visit, CIMC had 65 TANF recipients participating in their WtW program. They had received 125 referrals from county TANF offices, 50 through the tribal TANF program operated by SCTCA, 175 self-referrals, and 75 referred by other sources (for example, tribe).

Outreach and Referral. CIMC has been in existence for 21 years and is widely known by tribes and Indian people throughout California. Information about the WtW program has been disseminated widely by CIMC. At the tribal level, each member tribe must pass a resolution to participate in the WtW program; the resolution is published in the tribal newsletter. CIMC staff gives presentations at general and tribal council meetings of all member tribes. There have been some local radio and television public service announcements.

CIMC also meets regularly with staff from the 29 counties within their service area. They continue to assist counties in identifying Indian people who are eligible for WtW and/or other employment and training programs through CIMC.

Innovative Practices and/or Services. The consortium approach for WtW has been effective for CIMC and its participating WtW member tribes, most of which have less than 1,000 members. Because of their limited numbers, it was not feasible for many of these tribes to apply for a WtW grant. By joining with CIMC in applying for a WtW grant, these small tribes and rancherias were able to access WtW services, with CIMC being responsible for the operation of the WtW program.

The Kickapoo Tribe in Kansas

 

1. Selected Grantee Information

Location: Northeastern Kansas
Size of Reservation: 4,879 acres (checkerboard)
Tribal members: 326 On/near reservation: 478
Size of TANF population: 10
Special circumstances: Gaming

2. Reservation Economy

Most jobs on the reservation are with the tribal government, the Kickapoo Nation School, and the casino. When there was a lot of construction in the Horton area, the WtW coordinator received calls from employers looking for construction workers because they needed to recruit women and minorities. The tribe is working with the Haskell Indian Nations University on a long-range economic development plan--each program director has submitted a mission statement and goals for FY 2000.

3. Organizational Structure

Program Structure. The tribe's human resources department handles employment/job postings from off-reservation employers. The Nation has 19 contracts and 34 grants that fund tribal services. They do not operate a BIA general assistance program. The WtW and NEW programs are administered within the tribe's Community Services program, as are the child welfare, social services, and food assistance programs, as well as a range of other programs. The WtW program has only one coordinator on staff.

Program Funding:

WtW:

FY 1998 $41,009

FY 1999 $38,607

Key Partners. The Kickapoo WtW program works closely with the state and local Social and Rehabilitation Services (SRS) offices (SRS is the TANF agency). The Nation has a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with the SRS concerning coordination, procedures, and services of the Kickapoo NEW, WtW, and child welfare programs. The MOA has been in place since FY 1994 and is updated annually. The Kickapoo WtW coordinator meets quarterly with local (Hiawatha) and State (Topeka) SRS staff.

The WtW coordinator refers clients to the reservation home health care agency to assist senior citizens in need of care. Certified Nurse's Aide (CNA) courses are offered at nearby nursing homes; such certification is required for home health care jobs. There are a number of training opportunities, both on and off the reservation. The WtW coordinator networks with a variety of organizations to secure training opportunities for NEW and WtW participants.

Program Office Locations. The WtW and NEW programs are administered out of a single office that houses the tribe's Community Services program.

4. Program Model(s)

The tribe's WtW and NEW programs are small and are staffed by a single person/coordinator, providing in essence, a one-stop approach to meeting the training and job-related needs of each client. When an eligible tribal member comes to the WtW/NEW office seeking assistance in obtaining employment, the coordinator arranges for needed services and activities utilizing the WtW, NEW, or other program resources as appropriate.

5. Program Services and Practices

Target Population(s). Kickapoo tribal members on TANF or applying for TANF services.

Enrollment. As of June 30, 1999 (nine months after the program started), the WtW program had served 13 people.

Outreach and Referral. Flyers about the WtW program are posted in public places on the reservation, advertised at community events, booths at fairs, and through press releases that appear in the local newspaper and in the casino newspaper.

Applications for TANF are made at the county SRS office (in Hiawatha); applicants who identify themselves as Native American on the application form are given a choice of working with the tribal coordinator or with the local SRS office if they are enrolled Kickapoo tribal members or dependents. In general, SRS prefers that tribal members work with the tribal coordinator because it lessens their caseload, but they are required to give the client the choice.

Innovative Practices and/or Services. The tribe has been aggressive and successful in promoting economic development on the reservation, and the reservation economy has been invigorated by the success of the tribe's casino. Since the opening of the casino, any of the 500 tribal members residing on or near the reservation who want a job can get one. The focus has been on enterprises owned and operated by the tribe, as opposed to attracting other employers to the eservation.

The tribe is implementing programs and policies designed to overcome employment barriers. These programs include:

  • A cash incentive and community recognition are offered to each member obtaining a high school degree or the equivalent, and postsecondary education scholarships and programs are offered and advertised.
  • The tribe operates an alcohol/substance abuse treatment program and collaborates with providers of specialized treatment services.
  • Assistance is provided to tribal members to become homeowners on the reservation.
  • The tribe has adopted an "education first" approach to employment.

The Klamath Tribes

1. Selected Grantee Information

Location: South-central Oregon
Size of Reservation: 372 acres
Tribal members: 3,243 On/near reservation: 3,748
Size of TANF population: 28
Special circumstances: Operates tribal TANF program

2. Reservation Economy

The tribes confront significant barriers to employment and economic development. One such barrier is the lack of tribal or reservation land resulting from termination of federal recognition and treaties. There are, however, several factors that bode well for the development of the Klamath economy and employment opportunities for tribal members. For example, revenues from the tribal casino are likely to benefit from growth in tourism and in population in the region. Positive relations with the state government have facilitated cooperative planning and development efforts. The tribes are also in negotiations with the U.S. Forest Service for the return of land taken during termination.

3. Organizational Structure

Program Structure. The Klamath Education and Employment Department's (KEED) administers the tribes' WtW program. The WtW program is designed to provide tribal TANF program participants with work experience, including community service employment. The main objective of the WtW program is to place TANF participants in unsubsidized jobs. The program is specifically targeted at welfare recipients facing the most significant barriers to securing and retaining employment (for example, lack of education and training, work experience, child care, and transportation; poor reading and writing skills; long-term dependence on welfare; low levels of confidence; and low aspirations for productive employment). The WtW program receives all of its clients through referrals from the tribes' TANF program--Native American Family Assistance (NAFA).

In addition to the WtW program, KEED administers five other programs: (1) College Assistance, (2) Adult Vocational Training, (3) Adult Basic Education, (4) the Johnson-O'Malley Act/Program, and (5) Direct Employment Assistance.

Program Funding:

WtW:

FY 1998 $48,948

FY 1999 $43,953

Key Partners. The Klamath Tribes' Native American Family Assistance (NAFA) program was the first tribal TANF program to begin operations. The tribe worked closely with the state and patterned its NAFA plan after the state's own. KEED works with Klamath County to identify potential jobs. NAFA refers clients to the tribal WtW program. The Oregon Department of Human Resources provides employment and training slots that are funded by the state. These slots are currently used in partnership with Goodwill Industries.

Program Office Locations. KEED's offices are located at the tribal headquarters in Chiloquin. The majority of intake for WtW clients referred by NAFA is done there. Caseworkers also meet TANF clients at the NAFA offices, which are located approximately 24 miles to the south of the tribal headquarters building. The caseworkers also go to a client's home as needed.

4. Program Model(s)

The tribe's WtW program is closely patterned after the state's. Once the state refers Klamath tribal members to NAFA, the flow of clients is identical to most state programs. NAFA performs intake-related services and refers eligible clients to the WtW office.

5. Program Services and Practices

Target Population(s). The tribes' WtW program is specifically targeted at enrolled tribal members who receive tribal TANF.

Enrollment. As of September 30, 2000, the WtW program had served 36 people.

Outreach and Referral. The NAFA office makes referrals. No other outreach or recruitment is done for the WtW program.

Innovative Practices and/or Services. The tribes' affiliation with Goodwill Industries has been a success. Using a case management approach, the Goodwill program facilitates the identification of barriers to employment and improvement of problem behaviors (such as lateness). Trainees who are tardy or engage in other problem behaviors are advised that, if they were actually employed, they would have been terminated. Both Goodwill and the tribes work together to identify and address the barriers that are uncovered during the client's work experience.

The Navajo Nation

1. Selected Grantee Information

Location: The Navajo Nation includes portions of the states of Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition, there are three quasi-autonomous satellite reservations in New Mexico--Ramah, Alamo, and Canoncito.
Size of Reservation: 16,244,896 acres
Tribal members: 234,786 On/near reservation: 174,000
Size of TANF population: 27,000
Special circumstances: Tribal TANF as of October 1, 2000

2. Reservation Economy

The Navajo Nation includes world-renowned scenic areas, such as Canyon de Chelly, Shiprock Peak, and Monument Valley. It is estimated that 5 million tourists visit areas on or near Navajoland each year. The reservation has significant amounts of natural resources including timber (523,000 acres of ponderosa pine and Douglas fir), coal (4 billion tons), uranium (40 million tons), oil (millions of barrels), and land suitable for agribusiness.

There is a high rate of unemployment (over 58 percent) on the Navajo Reservation. According to the Nation's 1998-99 Overall Economic Development Plan, there were 824 employers in the Navajo Nation. Of these employers, only 52 had 100 employees or more. Basic industries such as manufacturing were represented by eight firms, with only four of these being major firms (Packard Hughes Interconnect, Raytheon Missiles, Tooh Dineh Industries, and Bula, Inc.). Another sector of basic industries, agriculture, has but one major firm--Navajo Agricultural Products Industry (NAPI).

The service sector (including hospitals, hotels and motels, and schools) is the largest employer in the Navajo Nation, with 279 (34 percent) of the 824 employers on the reservation. While tourism represents an area of potential growth, there are only 13 hotels and motels on the Reservation, and they represent only a small fraction of the economy of the Navajo Nation. The federal, state, and Navajo Nation governments are among the largest employers, with over 18,000 employees.

3. Organizational Structure

Program Structure. The Navajo Division of Workforce Development (NDWD) performs managerial, fiscal, technical, and administrative tasks involved in carrying out the various program activities for the following programs:

  • An employment and training program funded under Title IV-A and II-B of JTPA. This program is supplemented by JTPA funds from the states of Arizona and New Mexico.
  • An emergency services program funded under the Community Service Block Grant (CSBG) program.
  • A senior nutrition information and assistance program funded under Title VI of the Older Americans Act (OAA).
  • Native Employment Works (NEW), and the prior Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program.
  • Supplemental Security Income (SSI) (Title II, PL 104-193)
  • Child Support Enforcement (CSE) (Title III, PL 104-193)
  • Child Care and Development Fund (Title IV, PL 104-193)
  • Child Nutrition (Title VII, PL 104-193)
  • General Assistance (GA)
  • Housing Assistance (includes Home Improvement Program [HIP] and Weatherization Assistance Program [WAP])
  • Head Start
  • Foster Grandparent Program (FGP)
  • Federal and State WtW Grants

The WtW program is closely coordinated with four other NDWD programs: (1) NEW, (2) JTPA, (3) Child Care Development Fund (CCDF), and (4) Child Support Enforcement.

Program Funding:

WtW:

FY 1998 $2,294,364

FY 1999 $2,530,161

Key Partners. The WtW program works closely with the Arizona, New Mexico and, to a lesser degree, the Utah TANF programs. Memoranda of Agreement (MOAs) have been implemented with Navajo departments/programs (for example, Behavioral Health, TANF) and with state agencies in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah.

Program Office Locations. The NDWD has local offices at each of the five agencies in the Navajo Nation (Chinle, Crownpoint, Fort Defiance, Shiprock, and Tuba City). In addition, suboffices are maintained at Pueblo Pintado, NM; Greasewood, AZ; Tohatchi, NM; Rock Point, AZ; Aneth, UT; Kayenta, AZ; Leupp, AZ; Page, AZ; and Phoenix, AZ.

4. Program Model(s)

The WtW program service area is comprised of the entire Navajo Nation and the counties contiguous with its boundaries. The scope of the WtW and other Navajo Nation programs is vast, and program practices and issues vary across the five agencies to meet the needs of the chapters and individuals served. For example, each agency develops a work experience component in accordance with the needs and operations of tribal programs within the agency. Contract analysts at each agency negotiate contracts with service providers, such as Dine College, Crownpoint Institute of Technology, and the Gallup campus of the University of New Mexico (for remedial, basic, and vocational education services).

With the implementation of tribal TANF, the tribe has planned for close coordination in operating the TANF, WtW and other NDWD programs using a "one-stop" approach to serving clients.

5. Program Services and Practices

Target Population(s). The program works closely with the TANF programs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah to identify TANF recipients who reside in the Navajo Nation service area. The NDWD has posted announcements about the WtW program throughout the reservation at public places like Chapter Houses, post offices, and agency offices.

Enrollment. For the period ending March 31, 2000, a total of 173 people had been served under the WtW grant.

Outreach and Referral. The tribe receives and recruits TANF recipients referred by the states. The NDWD also has posted announcements about the WtW program throughout the reservation at public places like Chapter Houses, post offices, and agency offices.

Innovative Practices and/or Services. The Navajo Nation has historically placed economic development high on its list of priorities. It is developing and utilizing its natural resources (for example, coal, timber, rangeland) and has promoted a variety of initiatives, including a sawmill, timber harvest, uranium mining, and electrical power generation. The development efforts, however, have not generated enough jobs to reduce unemployment below 50 percent.

The tribe has developed broad community support for child support enforcement (CSE) and the tribal council has enacted a CSE Act. The tribe has worked closely with the States of Arizona and New Mexico, and the Navajo CSE Program has been able to generate more than $600,000 per year in child support.

On October 1, 2000, the Navajo Nation launched the largest tribal TANF program. The tribe's TANF proposal estimates that more than 27,000 Navajos will be served with more than 14,000 residing in Arizona, more than 12,000 residing in New Mexico, and more than 700 residing in Utah--all within Navajo lands.

The Nez Perce Tribe

1. Selected Grantee Information

Location: Western Idaho
Size of Reservation: 750,000 Acres
Tribal members: 3,300 On/near reservation: 16,159
Size of TANF population: 109
Special circumstances: The tribe operates TANF program; WtW program integrated in 102-477 program.

2. Reservation Economy

While the Nez Perce tribe has had some success in job creation, the unemployment rate is estimated to exceed 60 percent. The majority of employed tribal members work for the tribe, tribal entities, federal agencies, or the tribally owned and operated casinos. The tribe is the major employer on the reservation, with more than 900 employees, including seasonal workers. The tribe operates two casinos, an automobile service station, and convenience stores. The tribally owned Nee Mee Poo Health and the tribal Housing Authority together employ almost 100 employees.

While there are employers located near the reservation, few tribal members are employed by nontribal enterprises. The largest non-Indian employer near the reservation is the Potlatch Corporation, with 2,400 employees. Other major non-Indian employers in the area include the Blount Company, St. Joseph Medical Center, Lewiston Independent School District, Lewis-Clark State College, and various timber companies.

3. Organizational Structure

Program Structure. The WtW program is integrated in the tribe's Public Law 102-477 (Indian Employment, Training and Related Services Demonstration Project) program. The Nez Perce 477 program began to serve clients on January 1, 2000. Services are provided to tribal members residing on or near the reservation. The 477 program service area includes five counties in North Central Idaho and two cities in neighboring Washington State (Clarkston and Asotin).

The 477 program is administered by the Nez Perce Tribal Employment Rights Office (TERO) within the tribe's Department of Education. TERO is responsible for the delivery of employment, training, and education services to tribal members, ages 16 and older, residing on or near the Reservation. In addition to the 477 program, TERO administers:

  • A vocational rehabilitation program, funded by the Department of Education (ED)
  • A vocational education program, funded by ED
  • Administration of Indian preference in employment, training, contracting, and subcontracting under tribal ordinance, partially funded by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).

Program Funding:

The 477 program blends funding from three federal sources:

 

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)  

Native Employment Works (NEW)

$51,000

Department of Labor (DOL)  

Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Title IV-A

$36,000

II-B:

$107,000

Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Section 166

$23,000

Welfare to Work (WtW)

$23,000

Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)  

Adult Education and Employment Assistance

$143,000

TERO has an operational budget of 1.3 million dollars; nine percent of the total operating budget is allocated using tribal dollars, with the balance being federal share. The total 477 program budget is $360,000.

Key Partners. The 477 program has developed a network of agreements, formal and informal, with other programs operated by TERO, with other tribal programs, and with nontribal programs, primarily employment and training programs operated by the state of Idaho. In general, these agreements afford access by 477 program participants to employment-related supportive activities and services and identify ways the services can be coordinated by the parties.

The 477 program works closely with the vocational education, vocational rehabilitation, and Indian preference programs also operated by TERO. The 477 program also works closely with other tribal programs and offices, including the TANF, Early Childhood Development, General Assistance, and Tribal Scholarship programs, and the Welfare Reform Task Force and Tribal Housing Authority.

The Nez Perce 477 program coordinates services and activities with nontribal programs primarily through a partnership with Lewis-Clark State College (LCSC) that involves some formal and some informal agreements with a range of programs, including:

  • Idaho State Programs: (1) JTPA Title II A/B/C and Title III; (2) Idaho Department of Labor, Employment Service Plan targeting Native American unemployment insurance claimants under JTPA Title III, authorized by the Private Industry Council (PIC); (3) North Central Idaho Regional Collaborative Team for One-Stop Career Centers; (4) Idaho Department of Vocational Rehabilitation; (5) Idaho School-to-Work (Informal Agreement); (6) Idaho Rural Partnerships; (7) PIC of North-Central Idaho; and (8) Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, TANF.
  • Other Non-Tribal Programs: (1) U.S. Forest Service for youth work camps, (2) Boys and Girls Clubs, (3) Idaho Rural Partnerships (The tribe has a representative on the statewide board), and (4) Northwest Federation of Community Organizations (NWFCC).

The state of Idaho has supported the tribe's operation of the TANF program and its efforts to help tribal members become self-sufficient and to end their dependence on welfare. The state gives tribal members a choice of receiving TANF through the state or through the Nez Perce program. The state uses surplus TANF funds to provide supportive and other services to tribal members, including funds for work-related child care, transportation, training, and work supplies and equipment.

Program Office Locations. The 477 program offices are housed in two TERO Tribal Resource Centers (TRCs) located on the reservation in the towns of Lapwai and Kamiah.

4. Program Model(s)

The Nez Perce 477 program includes WtW, NEW, JTPA, adult education, and employment assistance programs. The 477 program is offered in two one-stop TRCs. The tribal vocational education and rehabilitation programs are co-located with the 477 program. These tribal programs embrace values of self-determination, self-governance, and the improvement of the tribe. Nez Perce culture, tradition, and values are expressed throughout the programs. Among the Nez Perce values expressed in the programs are self-reliance and independence.

5. Program Services and Practices

Target Population(s). The Nez Perce 477 program targets TANF recipients--tribal TANF staff refer all recipients to the 477 program.

Enrollment. The WtW program operated for about six months before being incorporated into the 477 program. During that time, the WtW program served 25 TANF recipients. From July 1, 1999, to December 31, 1999, the 477 program served 25 participants.

Outreach and Referral. The 477 program is widely known throughout the reservation; most of the participants were self-referred or were referred by tribal TANF program staff.

Innovative Practices and/or Services. Many of the 477 program participants have multiple barriers to employment. The employment barriers on the reservation include a lack of transportation and child care, low educational attainment of many tribal members, and prevalence of alcohol/substance abuse (A/SA). The tribe is implementing programs and policies designed to overcome each barrier and address long-term dependence on welfare programs:

  • Transportation. The tribe operates two vans to transport employees to and from work at the casinos and convenience stores, and the 477 program helps TANF recipients access state-funds to reimburse work-related transportation costs.
  • Child Care. The 477 program provides funds to TANF recipients for child care when such funds are unavailable from the TANF program. Lack of child care is a problem primarily because there are too few providers on the reservation. The LCSC offers an Associate of Arts program in early childhood development, and the tribe has arranged for classes in this program to be conducted on the reservation.
  • A/SA. The tribe has implemented A/SA prevention and treatment programs and collaborates with providers of specialized treatment services (for example, residential treatment) when needed.
  • Educational Attainment. The tribe's focus on increasing the educational attainment and employability of its members is central to the Nez Perce 477 and related programs. Clients of the 477 program are given the option to attend local or tribal colleges off the reservation.

The Red Lake Band of Chippewa

1. Selected Grantee Information

Location: Northern Minnesota
Size of Reservation: 837,736 acres (closed reservation)
Tribal members: 9,264 On/near reservation: 7,974
Size of TANF population: 650
Special circumstances: Gaming
Unemployment: Exceeds 50 percent

2. Reservation Economy

The tribe is developing a 20-year economic development plan. As part of this process, the tribe has identified four business sectors with greatest growth potential over the next 20 years: (1) wood products and building materials, (2) tourism/hospitality, (3) recreation, and (4) value-added agriculture. Based on this analysis, a plan for a hotel and water park is under consideration. The tribe is the largest employer on the reservation and is one of the larger employers in Beltrami County.

Economic development efforts include (1) a modular home construction facility; (2) a water bottling plant; (3) a construction firm; and (4) three casinos--River Road Casino (slots, blackjack, and bingo), Red Lake Casino (slots and bingo), and Lake of the Woods Casino (300 slot machines and blackjack). Despite these efforts, unemployment remains high (67 percent reported in 1997 by BIA) because there are too few jobs available.

3. Organizational Structure

Program Structure. The Employment and Training Department is responsible for the array of federal, state, and tribally funded employment programs, including: JTPA, TERO, CCDF, WtW, NEW, IMAGES (State MFIP/E&T-funded program similar to NEW), and General Assistance.

Program Funding:

WtW:

FY 1998 $195,976

FY 1999 $267,288

Key Partners. Partners include (1) Beltrami County Human Services (the local TANF agency); and (2) the Rural Minnesota Concentrated Employment Program, Inc. (JTPA/WtW formula grant provider as well as MFIP/E&T provider for nontribal members in the area).

Program Office Locations. The WtW program is currently located across the street from the local TANF agency (Beltrami County Human Services Branch Office at Red Lake). The program houses three NEW/IMAGES case managers and one case manager dedicated to WtW.

4. Program Model(s)

The Red Lake WtW program is administered by the Education and Training Department, IMAGES, which administers the NEW, JTPA and TERO programs. The tribe's Public Law 102-477 program, which will integrate its education and training programs, has been approved by BIA and was scheduled to begin in January 2000. These programs will be accessed in a one-stop center that was under construction at the time of the site visit.

5. Program Services and Practices

Target Population(s). MFIP clients who are enrolled tribal members and are referred by the local MFIP/TANF office.

Enrollment. As of September 1999, the WtW program had served 77 participants, with 4 of the 77 (5 percent) obtaining unsubsidized employment.

Outreach and Referral. There are few efforts to actively recruit participants for the WtW program. Almost all clients are referred from the local MFIP office.

Innovative Practices and/or Services. A tribal bus system is being implemented to help members get to and from work. The WtW program also provides funds to TANF recipients for child care when such funds are unavailable from the MFIP program. The tribe's planned implementation of a 477 program is intended to further integrate its JTPA, CCDF, NEW, WtW, Vocational Education, Higher Education, and General Assistance programs.

Three Affiliated Tribes (TAT)

1. Selected Grantee Information

Location: Northern Plains-West Central North Dakota
Size of Reservation: 1,000,000 acres
Tribal members: 10,500 On/near reservation: 5,246
Size of TANF population: 114
Special circumstances: WtW program integrated in 102-477 program 45 percent unemployment

2. Reservation Economy

The 1997 BIA Labor Force Report (the most recent BIA data available) indicated the actual number of tribal members employed was 1,023, of which 387 (38 percent) were living below poverty guidelines. The percentage of tribal members not employed exceeded 61 percent. Tribal officials reported that, in 1999, the unemployment rate was 45 percent. There are not enough jobs available to allow TANF recipients to move from welfare to work. The few jobs that become available tend to be service-related; often these jobs are seasonal, such as farm or ranch work; or tourism-related (motel/hotel housekeeping and maintenance, restaurant servers). The closest city, Minot, is about a two-hour drive from the Fort Berthold reservation--a commute that is impractical on a daily basis for most tribal members because of a lack of reliable transportation.

The largest employers on the reservation are the tribe itself (347 employees), the tribally owned Four Bears Casino and Lodge (300 employees), and the Northrop Grumman Corporation (25 employees). While several tribal enterprises have failed in recent years, new tribal enterprises are being planned, including a casket-making facility in New Town and a modular homes facility in Twin Buttes. There are few other enterprises on the reservation, and the pace of job creation is not sufficient to provide employment to large numbers of TANF recipients.

3. Organizational Structure

Program Structure. The TAT Employment and Training Department administers the WtW activities as part of a PL 102-477 program. The 477 program has a one-stop approach, where a case manager coordinates the services and activities for each participant. The TAT 477 program includes WtW, JTPA, adult education, and employment assistance programs, which are offered in a single office on the reservation.

The 477 program recruits people eligible for WtW services by soliciting referrals from the county TANF offices that serve the Fort Berthold Reservation. The reservation extends across five counties--Dunn, Mercer, McLean, McKenzie, and Mountrail. Each of these five county TANF offices refer TANF recipients to the TAT 477 program.

Program Funding:

The 477 program blends funding from the following federal programs:

FY 1998: federal WtW grant $ 51,214

FY 1998: WtW competitive grant $276,000 (not used) (2)

Other 477 program funds (not specified) (including WtW) $598,786

Key Partners. There are three major partners with the TAT 477 program--Fort Berthold Community College (FBCC), the five county TANF offices, and the North Dakota WtW program (known as JOBS). The JOBS program began to enroll participants in December 1998. Few TAT members were enrolled in the JOBS program, in part, because of problems in identifying people who met the 70 percent targeting requirement (lack of a high school diploma or equivalent and difficulties in reading, math, or other work-related skills).

The state of North Dakota did not accept a second year of WtW funding because the state had sufficient funds remaining from its first year allocation of formula funds ($2.6 million) and felt that it had sufficient funds to serve its TANF population. Consequently, the WtW formula program services provided through JOBS, and available to tribal members off the reservation, will terminate in August 2001.

FBCC, located on the reservation in New Town (and at several other satellite locations on the reservation), works closely with the TAT 477 program. Many 477 participants enroll in FBCC certificate or degree programs or in other postsecondary schools in and outside of North Dakota. A popular choice is the United Tribes Community College in Bismarck (operated by the four tribes in North Dakota), which offers programs in nursing, policing, plumbing, welding, early childhood development, and other occupational training. Most 477 participants become full-time students, generally taking 12 credit hours per semester. The 477 participants may apply for Pell Grants, but if they are ineligible for such grants, tuition is paid by the 477 program.

4. Program Model(s)

Because many tribal members lack the education or skills needed to obtain and retain unsubsidized jobs and because few unsubsidized jobs are available on or near the reservation, the 477 program has developed an education first approach. A broad range of educational opportunities is supported including obtaining a General Education Development (GED) diploma, 2- and 4-year degree programs, and certificate programs both on and off the reservation. Work experience is provided for TANF recipients as well as support services including transportation, alcohol/substance abuse (A/SA) screening/treatment, child care, and funds for work, clothing, and equipment.

5. Program Services and Practices

Many tribal members lack the education or skills needed to obtain and retain unsubsidized jobs. To address this issue, the 477 program has an "education first" approach. A broad range of educational opportunities is supported, including obtaining a GED, two- and four-year degree programs, and certificate programs both on and off the reservation. Work experience is provided for TANF recipients, as well as support services, including transportation, alcohol/substance abuse (A/SA) screening/treatment, child care, and funds for work clothing and equipment.

Target Population(s). The TAT 477 program targets TANF recipients and solicits referrals from the five county TANF offices. Tribal members who are eligible for TANF are referred to either the TAT 477 program or the North Dakota Job Service's JOBS program. Per agreements with the tribe, the TANF offices generally refer recipients who are interested in obtaining education and training to the 477 program; others are referred to the state JOBS program. The majority of the 477 program participants are not TANF recipients. The 477 program existed prior to the WtW program and is widely known throughout the reservation; the majority of the participants were self-referred.

Enrollment. Because the TAT WtW services and activities are integrated into the 477 program, there are no separate data for WtW program participants. The 477 program receives about five referrals per month of WtW-eligible individuals from county TANF offices. Program statistics for the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999 show that 885 people were served under the 477 program; 205 individuals were actively enrolled in the program as of September 30, 1999.

Outreach and Referral. The 477 program is widely known throughout the reservation. Announcements and information about the program are distributed in several tribal offices and are distributed at public gatherings such as powwows and rodeos. The program also recruits persons eligible for WtW services by soliciting referrals from the county TANF offices that serve the Ft. Berthold Reservation.

Innovative Practices and/or Services. As with other tribal WtW grantees, most of the 477 program participants have multiple barriers to employment. The employment barriers on the reservation include a lack of transportation and childcare, low educational attainment of many tribal members, and prevalence of alcohol/substance abuse (A/SA). The TAT 477 program focus on post-secondary education and training is quite different from the work-first approach generally employed in most WtW programs.

TAT places particular emphasis on education for career enhancement. TAT 477 clients have the choice of attending FBCC or other two- and four-year educational institutions off the reservation. FBCC provides a large share of the postsecondary training for 477 clients, with about 75 percent of these individuals having their tuition and other school cost paid through the 477 program (along with Pell grants). FBCC enrolled 285 students in spring 1999; 92 percent of these students were Native Americans. Most of those attending FBCC were enrolled in two-year degree programs (FBCC does have one four-year degree program).

Tanana Chiefs Conference, Inc. (TCC)

1. Selected Grantee Information

Location: Alaskan interior
Size of Reservation: 138,240 acres (consortium of 43 Athabaskan Indian Villages covering 235,000 square miles)
Tribal members: 11,086 (service population) On/near reservation: 5,500
Size of TANF population: 174
Special circumstances: Subsistence-based economies, Few paying jobs in villages

2. Reservation Economy

The economies of most of the TCC villages are subsistence based, including hunting (moose, caribou, porcupine, rabbit, and ptarmigan), freshwater fishing, and harvesting of berries. Other economic characteristics include (1) few paying jobs in the villages; (2) families are dependent on seasonal subsistence activities; and (3) many villagers migrate to and from Fairbanks to work, shop, attend education and training programs, and/or to seek medical, social, legal, or other services. Given these facts, the unemployment rate in most TCC villages varies from 80 to 90 percent using conventional measures.

Most of the villages are accessible only by boat (via rivers), snowmobile, or airplane. Few villages have landing strips that can be used after sundown for lack of landing lights. While every village has a school, none has a hospital or clinic staffed with physicians. Seriously ill or injured residents have to be transported by bush plane to Fairbanks or another city to receive medical care.

3. Organizational Structure

Governance. TCC is governed by a Board of Directors; each of the member villages elects a member of the board. The board elects a nine-member executive board, a president/chairman (responsible for the management of the corporation), a vice president, and a secretary/treasurer.

TCC is organized into six divisions: Health Services, Community and Natural Resources, Finance and Administration, General Counsel, Executive Secretary/Support Services, and Planning and Development. The Employment and Training Department is part of the Community and Natural Resources Division. The Employment and Training Department administers programs funded, in part, from grants and contracts under NEW, JTPA, Youth Summer Employment, and the WtW programs.

Program Funding:

WtW:

FY 1998 $192,346

FY 1999 $183,074

Key Partners. The WtW program is closely coordinated with other TCC programs, including NEW, JOBS, and Athabaskan Self-Sufficiency Assistance Program (ASAP). Although TCC has taken over responsibility for TANF, the state continues to administer the food stamp and Medicaid programs.

The Alaska Division of Public Assistance (DPA) has out-stationed food stamp/Medicaid eligibility staff at TCC, and the TCC and DPA staff work side-by-side in a single office. This arrangement allows DPA and TCC staff to exchange information about clients receiving assistance from both agencies.

Job readiness/skills training is provided at the Tanana Valley Campus of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Clients with suitable interests and aptitudes are referred to this eight-week job readiness/skills training program. Adult Learning Programs of Alaska (ALPA), a private nonprofit organization, provides adult basic education, testing for the GED, employment training, and job placement services. A child care services center is operated by the Fairbanks Native Association (FNA). The services of the center are free to qualified clients (for example, ASAP, ATAP, and WtW clients).

Program Office Locations. The TCC headquarters is in the city of Fairbanks and operates within six subregions (Fairbanks, Fort Yukon, Galena, Holy Cross, McGrath, and Tok). A part-time WtW case coordinator is stationed at each of the 43 native villages.

4. Program Model(s)

Each participant served by the WtW program receives an individualized program of support, depending upon prior employment, educational, and training history; the individual's goals; opportunities in the local labor market; and the overall needs of the participant's family in relation to wage levels, child care, and other supportive services needed to secure and retain a job. This includes job readiness, OJT training, adult work experience, classroom training, and other supportive services. TCC has the ability to provide such services to the remote villages for clients who cannot travel.

5. Program Services and Practices

Target Population(s). People applying for welfare-related programs or benefits such as food stamps, cash assistance, and ASAP.

Enrollment. At the time of the site visit, the TCC WtW program was fully operational, with trained staff in place, and had served more than 446 clients.

Outreach and Referral. Outreach and recruitment is accomplished primarily through a unified intake process, which includes all Native people in the TCC service area applying for welfare benefits.

Innovative Practices and/or Services. TCC's experience demonstrates the value and importance of sustained cooperation with the state TANF agency in both preparation for and ongoing administration of the tribal TANF program. TCC and the Alaska Division of Public Assistance (DPA) have worked closely together to prepare for the introduction of ASAP and to facilitate its ongoing operation.

The TCC WtW program takes into account the special barriers confronting participants in remote communities in complying with TANF Work-First requirements. Alaska, like many other states, requires TANF recipients to participate in an "up-front" job readiness workshop, and this requirement is applied to ASAP recipients. This requirement is reasonable in Fairbanks but not in the 43 remote villages that TCC serves, because resources are unavailable for such workshops in the villages, and the jobs toward which the workshops are intended to move participants are extremely scarce. As a result, TCC has defined the role of case managers serving the villages more broadly than for case managers serving the Fairbanks area. Case managers serving the villages work with participants on basic job readiness as well as on getting them into some kind of work activity--what TCC calls "comprehensive case management," as opposed to "regular case management" in the Fairbanks area.

The White Earth Reservation Tribal Council (RTC)

1. Selected Grantee Information

Location: North-central Minnesota
Size of Reservation: 837,120 acres ("checkerboard")
Tribal members: 20,989 On/near reservation: 6,491
Size of TANF population: 149
Special circumstances: WtW program integrated into 102-477 program

2. Reservation Economy

The 1997 BIA Labor Force Report (the most recent BIA data available) indicates the total tribal enrollment at 20,899, with 6,500 living on or near the reservation. Of the 6,500, more than one-third was not available for work (not job ready, disabled, or retired). The total workforce was 1,895 (29 percent). The actual number of tribal members employed was 848, of whom 85 (10 percent) were living below poverty guidelines. The number not employed was 1,047 (55 percent); however, tribal officials reported that, in the year 1999, the unemployment rate was 45 percent.

The tribe's economic development efforts are focused on gaming. The tribal casino and hotel, and the tribe itself, are the largest employers of tribal members living on the reservation. The tribe purchased a motel that is adjacent to the casino property, and plans are under way for the construction of a convention center to be attached to the casino. The casino provides amenities, including an indoor pool, that attract visits by a large retired population from Canada.

3. Organizational Structure

Program Structure. The 477 program is operated under the tribe's Employment and Training Department within the Office of Human Services. The 477 program staff consists of a director and four counselors. An attempt to move the program under the tribal college failed and was abandoned after a new tribal chairman was recently elected.

Under the tribe's 477 program, WtW participants may be assigned to or be provided with case management, OJT, work experience (WEX), supportive services, job readiness, or education (Adult Basic and Vocational).

Program Funding. The tribe's WtW funding is consolidated with other formula-funded employment, training, and related services programs as permitted by Public Law 102-477. Other funds consolidated with the tribe's WtW funding include Workforce Investment Act/Job Training Partnership Act (WIA/JTPA)--Adult and Youth Program Funding; and the Native Employment Works (NEW) program and Child Care Development Funds (CCDF) through the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS); Adult Vocational/Direct Employment (AVT-DE), and General Assistance/Employment Training through BIA. The total amount of federal funding for the entire 477 program for reporting period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999 was $952,878.

WtW:

FY 1998 $265,424

FY 1999 $281,934

Key Partners. The tribe has a cooperative agreement with the Northwest Technical College-Detroit Lakes campus for a satellite program that includes a two-year, state-accredited, electrician training course. The tribe also coordinates training activities with Teamworks, a nonprofit subsidiary of the Midwest Minnesota Community Development Corporation. Teamworks is currently working with four private manufacturers to screen and train employees. Recruitment and training are tailored to the needs of the employers and include assessment of required skills and aptitudes. White Earth 477 clients who participate in the Teamworks program are offered conditional jobs before the start of training as an enticement to participate in and to complete the training. The employers pay the cost of training; some employers provide additional training (beyond the training negotiated with Teamworks) to participants. The White Earth Tribal and Community College (TCC) also provides job readiness classes to clients referred by the 477 program.

Program Office Locations. The tribal headquarters is located in White Earth, while the 477 program offices are located approximately 15 miles away in Naytahwaush. Case managers make house calls for clients who cannot make the trip to the 477 program office location.

4. Program Model(s)

The services available through the tribal 477 program focus primarily on education, training, and support services with relatively little emphasis on work experience and OJT. Supportive services funded by the tribe are provided to WtW participants only when resources provided by the state or county are exhausted. The following programs are included in the one-stop 477 program:

  • Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
    • Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)
    • Native Employment Works (NEW)
  • Department of Labor (DOL)
    • JTPA IV-A Adult Job Training
    • JTPA II-B Summer Youth
    • Welfare to Work (WtW)
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
    • Adult Vocational Training (AVT) and Direct Employment (DE)
    • Tribal Work Experience (TWEP)

5. Program Services and Practices

Target Population(s). The tribe's 477 program began in October 1998. In July 1999, it began to target people eligible for WtW services. Because the WtW services and activities are integrated into the 477 program, the tribe does not make an independent determination of WtW eligibility for participants. According to program staff, the 477 program consistently receives 5 to 10 referrals per month of WtW-eligible individuals from the State TANF Program--the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP).

Enrollment. Program statistics for the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999 show that 602 individuals were served by the 477 program; 235 individuals were actively enrolled in the program as of September 30, 1999. Of the 602 participants, 105 (17 percent) had been placed in unsubsidized employment. Of the 105 participants placed, 67 (64 percent) were long-term TANF recipients.

Outreach and Referral. All WtW participants are referred by county MFIP agencies. While the tribe undertakes no outreach or recruitment efforts, many tribal members are familiar with the services, self-refer, and are served as "walk-ins."

Innovative Practices and/or Services. With more than 900 employees, the Shooting Star Casino and Hotel are the largest employers in Mahnomen County. The tribe has been focusing much of its economic development activities on the expansion of the casino and related facilities. The casino and hotel, as well as tribal programs, are the greatest source of employment for tribal TANF recipients. Since this is a 24-hour operation, the casino provides round-the-clock child care for its employees.

Endnotes

1.  CIMC provides capacity-building and management oversight under contract for this urban Indian site. CIMC will assist the organization to form its own independent facility. No WtW clients are served from this site.

2.  Because of a lack of consensus concerning administration of the competitive grant, the tribe did not expend all of the obligated funds.