In the second and third interviews, caretakers were again asked questions about problems in the family. These questions paralleled those asked in the first interview, except this time caretakers were asked to respond to questions with regard to the time "since we last spoke to you" (seeTables 8-6 and 8-7). We analyze each of these problem items separately. Kentucky. At the post-treatment interview, on 8 of the 9 problem questions, there were no differences between the experimental and control groups in responses. On the question of whether the caretaker felt overwhelmed with work or family responsibilities, a greater proportion of caretakers in the experimental group responded affirmatively at post-treatment than did caretakers in the control group (47% vs. 37%, p = .08).13 In addition to the items about problems, caretakers were asked three questions about positive aspects of their lives: "gotten together with anyone to have fun or relax," "felt happy," and "felt that considering everything you're doing a pretty good job raising your kids." The primary analysis revealed that 89% of caretakers in the experimental group responded that they "felt happy" since the last interview as compared to 82% of caretakers in the control group (p = .09). For both the experimental and control groups, 64% responded affirmatively to the question of "getting together with anyone to have fun or relax," and over 90% responded affirmatively that they were "doing a pretty good job raising [their] kids." There were no significant differences between experimental and control groups on these last two items in either the primary or secondary analyses.
At the follow-up interview, there were no significant differences between experimental and control groups on any of these items.
|Felt blue or depressed||145||41||147||37||133||44||210||48||37||46||80||40|
|Felt nervous or tense||145||46||147||46||131||49||210||44||37||41||80||40|
|Just wanted to give up||145||17||147||15||133||26||210||20||35||29||79||23|
|Overwhelmed with work or family responsibility||145||37||148||47||0.08||133||50||210||44||37||32||80||33|
|Felt you had few or no friends||145||14||147||18||133||20||209||18||37||38||79||19||0.03|
|Not enough money for food, rent, or clothing||145||39||148||44||133||52||210||40||0.03||37||46||80||43|
|Gotten in trouble with the law||144||3||147||3||133||2||210||1||37||3||80||0|
|Had too much to drink in a week||145||2||148||1||133||2||209||2||37||5||80||3|
|Used drugs several times a week||145||1||148||0||133||2||209||1||37||5||80||3|
|Had difficulty paying rent||141||13||144||20||133||29||209||18||0.02||37||24||80||15|
|Had difficulty paying electric/heat||142||20||144||28||132||30||209||26||37||27||80||21|
|Had difficulty buying enough food||145||15||146||17||132||28||209||22||37||22||80||11|
|Had difficulty buying clothes||145||17||146||21||132||47||208||33||0.01||37||27||80||24|
|Have you felt happy||145||82||147||89||0.09||131||82||210||81||37||84||80||93|
|Gotten together with anyone to have fun/relax||145||64||148||64||133||65||210||59||37||38||80||75||0.001|
|Doing a pretty good job raising kids||144||94||147||91||130||88||209||91||36||92||79||96|
|Felt blue or depressed||119||44||130||42||107||55||166||48||36||44||74||47|
|Felt nervous or tense||119||47||130||53||105||53||166||47||36||31||73||38|
|Just wanted to give up||119||18||130||23||105||27||164||25||36||19||73||14|
|Overwhelmed with work or family responsibility||119||39||130||42||105||51||165||50||36||44||74||36|
|Felt you had few or no friends||119||24||130||25||107||15||166||24||36||8||74||19|
|Not enough money for food, rent, or clothing||118||44||130||46||106||46||166||45||36||42||74||49|
|Gotten in trouble with the law||119||6||130||4||107||1||166||4||36||3||74||3|
|Had too much to drink in a week||119||3||130||3||106||0||166||2||36||3||74||7|
|Used drugs several times a week||119||3||130||0||106||0||166||1||36||3||74||4|
|Had difficulty paying rent||118||20||127||20||107||34||167||27||36||39||74||20||.04|
|Had difficulty paying electric/heat||118||19||126||25||107||36||167||37||36||42||74||32|
|Had difficulty buying enough food||119||14||129||15||107||35||167||26||36||19||73||14|
|Had difficulty buying clothes||119||15||128||19||107||42||167||35||36||31||73||21|
|Have you felt happy||119||89||130||89||106||83||166||87||36||92||73||89|
|Gotten together with anyone to have fun/relax||119||73||130||69||107||57||166||64||36||61||74||69|
|Doing a pretty good job raising kids||112||91||123||93||104||90||166||92||36||92||74||96|
NOTE: "FE" indicates significance determined by Fisher's exact test
New Jersey. On 8 of the 9 problem questions, there were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups in responses at post-treatment. On the overall question about the economic condition of family, "have you felt you just didn't have enough money for food, rent, or clothing?" 52% of the control group said yes, compared to 40% of the experimental group significantly different at p = .03, although in the secondary analysis the difference was not significant.14 On none of the positive questions were there significant differences between groups in either the primary or secondary analyses.
At follow-up differences between groups approached significance for only one item, "felt you had few or no friends." More experimental group respondents replied affirmatively to this item (24% vs. 15% p = .07).
Tennessee. There was a significant difference between groups on only one of the nine problem questions at post-treatment. Fewer experimental group respondents reported they felt they had few or no friends (19% vs. 38%, p = .03). As to positive items, experimental group respondents far more often reported they "had gotten together with someone to have fun or relax" (75% vs. 38%, p < .001). At follow-up there were no differences between groups on any of these items.
(13) This difference was slightly greater and statistically significant in the secondary analysis (48% vs. 35%, p= .04).
(14) In the secondary analysis, fewer experimental group respondents reported health problems (12% vs. 21% for the control group, p = .04).