In the caretaker interviews, there was a 15 item "life events" inventory asking about the occurrence of both positive and negative events in the last 3 months in the initial interview or since the previous interview in the post-treatment and follow-up interviews (Appendix K, Initial Caretaker Interview, p. 7). We formed three scales from this inventory, positive life events, negative life events, and a scale of those life events that might reflect depression in the caretaker (we had a more formal depression measure as well, described below). In none of the three states were there statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups in the scores on these measures at the post-treatment or follow-up interviews nor were there differences between the groups in changes over time (see Tables 8-3, 8-4, and 8-5). It will be noted that generally the levels of these scales dropped in the second interview compared to the first and then increased again in the third interview. This is likely due to the differences in the time periods referenced in the questions asked at the three points in time (the last three months in the initial interview, last 4 to 6 weeks in the post-treatment interview, and last 10 to 11 months in the follow-up interview).

Post-Treatment |
Follow-Up |
Multivariate Repeated Measures |
||||||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Means |
Univariate ps |
Univariate ps-Time |
Univariate ps- Grp-time interaction |
|||||||||||||||

N |
M^{a} |
p^{b} |
N |
M |
p |
N |
Initial |
Post |
Follow |
Grp^{c} |
Time^{d} |
Time -Grp^{e} |
Initial v. later^{f} |
Post v. Follow^{g} |
Initial v. later |
Post v. Follow | ||

Positive life events | C | 146 | .12 | 119 | .22 | 108 | .16 | .12 | .21 | .042 | .001 | .41 | .001 | |||||

E | 148 | .14 | 130 | .21 | 117 | .18 | .14 | .20 | ||||||||||

Negative life events | C | 146 | .04 | 119 | .07 | 108 | .08 | .03 | .07 | .40 | .001 | .001 | .001 | .001 | ||||

E | 148 | .03 | 130 | .09 | 117 | .10 | .03 | .09 | ||||||||||

Life events depression | C | 145 | .35 | 119 | .37 | 107 | .45 | .36 | .38 | .40 | .001 | .38 | .001 | |||||

E | 147 | .36 | 130 | .40 | 117 | .50 | .37 | .42 | ||||||||||

Economic Functioning | C | 142 | .17 | 118 | .17 | 105 | .22 | .15 | .18 | .08 | .001 | .27 | .001 | |||||

E | 144 | .22 | 127 | .20 | 111 | .32 | .23 | .20 | ||||||||||

Punishment | C | 143 | .16 | 113 | .15 | 101 | .22 | .17 | .15 | .49 | .001 | .36 | .001 | .09 | ||||

E | 147 | .17 | 121 | .15 | 109 | .25 | .18 | .15 | ||||||||||

Child aggression | C | 146 | 1.36 | 119 | 1.24 | 108 | 1.56 | 1.44 | 1.29 | .84 | .001 | .96 | .001 | .05 | ||||

E | 148 | 1.33 | 130 | 1.29 | 117 | 1.57 | 1.44 | 1.32 | ||||||||||

School problems | C | 112 | .22 | 96 | .25 | 78 | .29 | .24 | .27 | .14 | .03 | .41 | .01 | |||||

E | 101 | .20 | 97 | .19 | 77 | .26 | .21 | .18 | ||||||||||

Child withdrawn | C | 146 | .89 | 119 | .99 | 108 | 1.08 | .89 | 1.00 | .99 | .001 | .29 | .001 | |||||

E | 148 | .93 | 130 | .93 | 117 | 1.08 | .97 | .93 | ||||||||||

Stolen things or arrested | C | 146 | .34 | 119 | .39 | 108 | .31 | .34 | .39 | .76 | .75 | .07 | .03 | |||||

E | 148 | .32 | 130 | .31 | 117 | .44 | .35 | .32 | ||||||||||

Child substance abuse | C | 146 | .07 | 119 | .03 | 108 | .05 | .07 | .04 | .40 | .35 | .67 | ||||||

E | 148 | .04 | 130 | .02 | 117 | .03 | .03 | .03 | ||||||||||

Child problems | C | 146 | 2.20 | 119 | 1.89 | 108 | 2.44 | 2.23 | 2.18 | .87 | .001 | .47 | .001 | |||||

E | 148 | 2.05 | 130 | 2.04 | 117 | 2.56 | 2.14 | 2.07 | ||||||||||

Negative child behaviors | C | 140 | .34 | 107 | .33 | 98 | .37 | .34 | .34 | .95 | .001 | .47 | .001 | |||||

E | 139 | .34 | 120 | .34 | 106 | .39 | .34 | .33 | ||||||||||

Positive child behaviors | C | 142 | .71 | 109 | .67 | 99 | .70 | .69 | .67 | .78 | .31 | .84 | ||||||

E | 142 | .71 | 121 | .68 | 109 | .69 | .69 | .67 | ||||||||||

Household condition | C | 142 | .02 | 119 | .02 | 102 | .05 | .02 | .02 | .29 | .002 | .45 | .001 | |||||

E | 147 | .02 | 129 | .01 | 111 | .03 | .01 | .01 | ||||||||||

Depression (SCL-90) | C | 145 | .79 | 119 | .67 | 107 | .95 | .77 | .70 | .67 | .001 | .31 | .001 | |||||

E | 146 | .74 | 130 | .79 | 115 | .96 | .74 | .83 | ||||||||||

Positive child care practices | C | 140 | .85 | 107 | .82 | 94 | .87 | .85 | .83 | .55 | .09 | .97 | .06 | |||||

E | 143 | .82 | 116 | .81 | 103 | .85 | .84 | .81 | ||||||||||

Negative child care practices | C | 141 | .14 | 109 | .12 | 97 | .17 | .15 | .12 | .57 | .001 | .22 | .001 | .05 | ||||

E | 144 | .13 | 117 | .13 | 104 | .20 | .14 | .13 |

^{a} Means of control and experimental groups

^{b} Test of hypothesis of equivalent group means

^{c} Test of hypothesis that group means, averaged over time, are equal

^{d} Test of hypothesis that means at three points in time, averaged over the groups, are equal

^{e} Test of hypothesis of no interaction between group and time, that is, that the pattern of means over time is the same for both groups

^{f} Test of hypothesis that time one is equal to average of time two and time three

^{g} Test of hypothesis that time two is equal to time three

Post-Treatment |
Follow-Up |
Multivariate Repeated Measures |
||||||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Means |
Univariate ps |
Univariate ps-Time |
Univariate ps-Grp-time interaction |
|||||||||||||||

N |
M^{a} |
p^{b} |
N |
M |
p |
N |
Initial |
Post |
Follow |
Grp^{c} |
Time^{d} |
Time -Grp^{e} |
Initial v. later^{f} |
Post v. Follow^{g} |
Initial v. later |
Post v. Follow |
||

Positive life events | C | 133 | .15 | 107 | .23 | 83 | .19 | .16 | .25 | .05 | .001 | .99 | .001 | |||||

E | 210 | .13 | 166 | .21 | 129 | .17 | .13 | .22 | ||||||||||

Negative life events | C | 133 | .04 | 107 | .09 | 83 | .13 | .04 | .10 | .46 | .001 | .49 | .001 | .001 | ||||

E | 210 | .05 | 166 | .11 | 129 | .11 | .04 | .09 | ||||||||||

Life events depression | C | 133 | .42 | 106 | .47 | 83 | .48 | .38 | .44 | .93 | .001 | .33 | .001 | |||||

E | 210 | .39 | 165 | .42 | 128 | .52 | .39 | .41 | ||||||||||

Economic Functioning | C | 132 | .34 | .02 | 107 | .36 | 83 | .39 | .33 | .33 | .07 | .06 | .31 | .06 | ||||

E | 209 | .25 | 167 | .31 | 129 | .29 | .24 | .30 | ||||||||||

Punishment | C | 131 | .25 | .04 | 105 | .21 | 80 | .31 | .25 | .22 | .03 | .001 | .93 | .001 | .03 | |||

E | 209 | .20 | 167 | .18 | 129 | .27 | .20 | .17 | ||||||||||

Child aggression | C | 134 | 1.68 | .09 | 107 | 1.38 | 84 | 1.89 | 1.77 | 1.37 | .05 | .001 | .26 | .001 | .001 | |||

E | 210 | 1.48 | 167 | 1.32 | 130 | 1.62 | 1.44 | 1.28 | ||||||||||

School problems | C | 118 | .22 | 96 | .34 | 69 | .36 | .26 | .36 | .009 | .001 | .84 | .01 | .003 | ||||

E | 197 | .20 | 157 | .28 | 121 | .29 | .19 | .26 | ||||||||||

Child withdrawn | C | 134 | .40 | 107 | .41 | 84 | .62 | .42 | .37 | .38 | .001 | .51 | .001 | |||||

E | 210 | .40 | 167 | .38 | 130 | .50 | .41 | .33 | ||||||||||

Stolen things or arrested | C | 134 | .37 | 107 | .42 | 84 | .58 | .35 | .44 | .60 | .001 | .99 | .001 | .05 | ||||

E | 210 | .29 | 167 | .48 | 130 | .55 | .31 | .41 | ||||||||||

Child substance abuse | C | 134 | .16 | 107 | .20 | 84 | .26 | .13 | .18 | .94 | .01 | .71 | .02 | 10 | . | |||

E | 210 | .17 | 167 | .27 | 130 | .23 | .14 | .22 | ||||||||||

Child problems | C | 134 | 2.64 | 107 | 2.88 | 84 | 3.00 | 2.70 | 2.99 | .57 | .001 | .45 | .003 | .09 | ||||

E | 210 | 2.64 | 167 | 2.83 | 130 | 3.03 | 2.62 | 2.73 | ||||||||||

Negative child behaviors | C | 130 | .33 | .04 | 105 | .34 | 81 | .41 | .34 | .35 | .005 | .001 | .84 | .001 | .001 | |||

E | 207 | .28 | 163 | .32 | 126 | .35 | .28 | .30 | ||||||||||

Positive child behaviors | C | 132 | .74 | 106 | .75 | 83 | .73 | .75 | .77 | .63 | .01 | .69 | .02 | .02 | ||||

E | 208 | .73 | 163 | .76 | 128 | .72 | .73 | .77 | ||||||||||

Household condition | C | 134 | .06 | 107 | .04 | 84 | .06 | .06 | .03 | .78 | .05 | .38 | .04 | |||||

E | 210 | .05 | 167 | .05 | 129 | .06 | .05 | .04 | ||||||||||

Depression (SCL-90) | C | 134 | 1.00 | .08 | 105 | .85 | 83 | 1.01 | .84 | .82 | .92 | .001 | .71 | .001 | ||||

E | 209 | .83 | 166 | .82 | 127 | 1.04 | .89 | .77 | ||||||||||

Positive child care practices | C | 128 | .76 | 103 | .76 | 77 | .79 | .77 | .77 | .43 | .11 | .67 | .06 | |||||

E | 206 | .77 | 163 | .80 | 124 | .82 | .78 | .79 | ||||||||||

Negative child care practices | C | 129 | .18 | .02 | 101 | .14 | 76 | .21 | .18 | .14 | .07 | .001 | .34 | .001 | .06 | |||

E | 207 | .14 | 162 | .13 | 124 | .19 | .13 | .13 |

^{a} Means of control and experimental groups

^{b} Test of hypothesis of equivalent group means

^{c} Test of hypothesis that group means, averaged over time, are equal

^{d} Test of hypothesis that means at three points in time, averaged over the groups, are equal

^{e} Test of hypothesis of no interaction between group and time, that is, that the pattern of means over time is the same for both groups

^{f} Test of hypothesis that time one is equal to average of time two and time three

^{g} Test of hypothesis that time two is equal to time three

Post-Treatment |
Follow-Up |
Multivariate Repeated Measures |
||||||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Means | Univariate ps | Univariate ps-Time |
Univariate ps-Grp-time interaction |
|||||||||||||||

N |
M^{a} |
p^{b} |
N |
M |
p |
N |
Initial |
Post |
Follow |
Grp^{c} |
Time^{d} |
Time -Grp^{e} |
Initial v. later^{f} |
Post v. Follow^{g} |
Initial v. later |
Post v. Follow |
||

Positive life events | C | 37 | .14 | 36 | .31 | 28 | .20 | .15 | .32 | .53 | .001 | .76 | .001 | |||||

E | 80 | .18 | 74 | .31 | 61 | .24 | .19 | .31 | ||||||||||

Negative life events | C | 37 | .05 | 36 | .14 | 28 | .14 | .06 | .15 | .13 | .001 | .77 | .01 | .001 | ||||

E | 80 | .05 | 74 | .11 | 61 | .10 | .04 | .12 | ||||||||||

Life events depression | C | 31 | .36 | 36 | .35 | 28 | .49 | .40 | .34 | .85 | .001 | .66 | .001 | |||||

E | 80 | .34 | 74 | .34 | 61 | .50 | .37 | .34 | ||||||||||

Economic Functioning | C | 37 | .25 | 36 | .33 | 28 | .43 | .25 | .31 | .06 | .001 | .86 | .001 | |||||

E | 80 | .18 | 73 | .22 | 59 | .31 | .16 | .19 | ||||||||||

Punishment | C | 37 | .13 | 36 | .10 | 28 | .21 | .12 | .11 | .45 | .001 | .11 | .001 | .09 | .10 | |||

E | 76 | .13 | 71 | .07 | 54 | .28 | .15 | .08 | ||||||||||

Child aggression | C | 37 | .81 | 36 | .86 | 28 | .89 | .86 | .86 | .97 | .11 | .18 | .09 | |||||

E | 80 | .86 | 74 | .59 | 61 | 1.05 | .93 | .61 | ||||||||||

School problems | C | 32 | .17 | 35 | .20 | 22 | .35 | .25 | .25 | .11 | .003 | .65 | .002 | |||||

E | 65 | .15 | 63 | .18 | 46 | .23 | .15 | .20 | ||||||||||

Child withdrawn | C | 37 | .27 | 36 | .28 | 28 | .68 | .25 | .82 | .94 | .001 | .10 | .01 | |||||

E | 80 | .38 | 74 | .23 | 61 | .59 | .41 | .23 | ||||||||||

Stolen things or arrested | C | 37 | .19 | 36 | .47 | 28 | .50 | .25 | .50 | .27 | .004 | .66 | .04 | .007 | ||||

E | 80 | .19 | 74 | .34 | 61 | .43 | .18 | .31 | ||||||||||

Child substance abuse | C | 37 | .03 | 36 | .03 | 28 | .00 | .04 | .04 | .44 | .97 | .31 | ||||||

E | 80 | .03 | 74 | .04 | 61 | .08 | .03 | .05 | ||||||||||

Child problems | C | 37 | 2.08 | 36 | 2.03 | 28 | 2.39 | 2.14 | 2.04 | .49 | .02 | .70 | .005 | |||||

E | 80 | 1.72 | 74 | 1.70 | 61 | 2.33 | 1.84 | 1.80 | ||||||||||

Negative child behaviors | C | 34 | .21 | 35 | .22 | 26 | .33 | .23 | .23 | .52 | .001 | .81 | .001 | |||||

E | 72 | .21 | 71 | .19 | 55 | .30 | .22 | .20 | ||||||||||

Positive child behaviors | C | 34 | .81 | 36 | .90 | .07 | 26 | .83 | .80 | .90 | .69 | .03 | .26 | .01 | ||||

E | 72 | .83 | 70 | .86 | 54 | .81 | .83 | .85 | ||||||||||

Household condition | C | 36 | .07 | 34 | .10 | 25 | .13 | .08 | .14 | .09 | .28 | .38 | ||||||

E | 78 | .06 | 71 | .06 | 58 | .09 | .07 | .06 | ||||||||||

Depression (SCL-90) | C | 37 | .76 | 36 | .83 | 28 | 1.00 | .81 | .72 | .89 | .008 | .64 | .002 | |||||

E | 80 | .70 | 74 | .73 | 61 | 1.03 | .71 | .73 | ||||||||||

Positive child care practices | C | 36 | .82 | 34 | .96 | 24 | .90 | .89 | .94 | .70 | .05 | .71 | .01 | |||||

E | 71 | .88 | 67 | .93 | 48 | .90 | .86 | .95 | ||||||||||

Negative child care practices | C | 35 | .09 | 33 | .07 | 25 | .11 | .09 | .08 | .38 | .001 | .09 | .001 | .03 | ||||

E | 72 | .09 | 66 | .06 | 50 | .18 | .09 | .07 |

^{a} Means of control and experimental groups

^{b} Test of hypothesis of equivalent group means

^{c} Test of hypothesis that group means, averaged over time, are equal

^{d} Test of hypothesis that means at three points in time, averaged over the groups, are equal

^{e} Test of hypothesis of no interaction between group and time, that is, that the pattern of means over time is the same for both groups

^{f} Test of hypothesis that the average initial score is equal to the average of post-treatment and final scores

^{g} Test of hypothesis that average post-treatment score is equal to the average final score

**Figure 8-4. Child and Family Functioning over Time**