In the initial interview, respondents were asked whether they or anyone else in the household had participated in various social programs within the past 3 months. The overall rates of participation are provided in Table 4-4. Approximately four-fifths indicated that they received food stamps, just over two-thirds received AFDC, slightly less than half received WIC, about one quarter received social security disability, and less than one-tenth received a housing voucher. Overall, respondents indicated that they participated in an average of 2.3 of the 5 income support programs listed (s.d. = 1.2) and 90 percent of the sample participated in at least one of the five programs. There were no significant differences between experimental and control groups in the rate of participation in income support programs. Reports of participation in alcoholism, drug treatment, marriage counseling, and job training programs were less than 10 percent for each. Slightly less than a third of the sample reported participation in Head Start or another pre-school program.