Evaluating Two Approaches to Case Management: Implementation, Participation Patterns, Costs, and Three-Year Impacts of the Columbus Welfare-to-Work Program. Appendix B: Supplementary Tables to Chapter 3

06/01/2001

Table B.1
Rates of Participation Within a Two-Year Follow-Up Period,
by High-School Diploma/GED Status
Measure High School Diploma or GED No High School Diploma or GED
Integrated Group(%) Traditional Group(%) Integrated Group(%) Traditional Group(%)
For all sample members for whom case files were revieweda
Attended JOBS orientation 88.0 58.3*** 83.2 69.1**
Participated in:
Any Activity 54.7 33.3*** 50.5 34.0**
Job search 22.2 12.5** 5.6 3.1d
Any education or training 27.4 20.0 41.1 29.9*
Basic education 11.1 7.5 39.3 24.7**
Post-secondary educationb 6.0 8.3 5.6 3.1d
Vocational training 12.0 6.7 2.8 3.1d
Life skills workshops 12.8 1.7*** 6.5 0.0d
Work experience 15.4 7.5* 7.5 2.1d
Sample sizec 117 120 107 97
For all sample members who attended a JOBS orientatione
Participated in:
Any Activity 65.5 53.7 61.4 53.3
Job search 26.2 22.0 4.3 6.7
Any education or training 33.3 39.0 50.0 44.4
Basic education 14.3 12.2 47.1 37.8
Post-secondary educationb 6.0 17.1 8.6 2.2
Vocational training 15.5 14.6 4.3 4.4
Life skills workshops 15.5 0.0 10.0 0.0
Work experience 20.2 14.6 11.4 4.4
Sample size 84 41 70 45
Source: MDRC calculations based on MDRC-collected JOBS case file data.
Notes: aFor this sample, the follow-up period began on the day the individual was randomly assigned. Tests of statistical significance were calculated for the differences between the integrated and traditional groups. Statistical significance levels are indicated as: * = 10 percent; ** = 5 percent; ***= 1 percent.
bCourses for college credit at a two-year or four-year college.
cTwo individuals who did not indicate whether they had a high school diploma or GED at random assignment were excluded from the subgroup analysis.
dTests of statistical significance are not appropriate; sample sizes for this measure are too small. eFor this sample, the follow-up period began on the day of JOBS orientaion. Only orientation attenders for whom there are two full years post-orientation data are included. Differences between the integrated and traditional group outcomes, shown in italics, are not true experimental comparisons; statistical significance tests were not calculated.

 

Table B.2
Length of Participation Within a Two-Year Follow-Up Period,
by High-School Diploma/GED Status
Measure High School Diploma or GED No High School Diploma or GED
Integrated Group Traditional Group Integrated Group Traditional Group
For all sample members for whom case files were revieweda
Average number of months receiving AFDC 16.6 17.2 17.3 18.2
Average number of months in which individuals were JOBS -mandatory 14.6 15.0 14.4 15.4
Average number of months in which individuals participated in a JOBS activity 3.2 2.2 3.5 1.6***
Sample sizeb 117 120 107 97
For Participants onlyc:
Average number of months in which individuals participated in a JOBS activity 5.8 6.7 7.4 4.8
Number of months in which there was paticipition(%)
1 14.1 7.7 13.7 15.6
2 21.9 20.5 19.6 25.0
3 10.9 10.3 13.7 6.3
4-6 18.8 23.1 5.9 21.9
7-12 21.9 23.1 27.5 25.0
13-18 10.9 2.6 11.8 6.3
19 or more 1.6 12.8 7.8 0.0
In any activity at the end of the follow-up period(%) 9.4 18.0 17.7 3.1
Sample size 64 39 51 32
Source: MDRC calculations from MDRC-collected JOBS case file data and Ohio AFDC records.
Notes: aTests of statistical significance were calculated for the differences between the integrated and traditional groups. Statistical significance levels are indicated as: * = 10 percent; ** = 5 percent; ***= 1 percent.
bTwo individuals who did not indicate whether they had a high school diploma or GED at random assignment were excluded from the subgroup analysis.
cDifferences between the integrated and traditional group outcomes, shown in italics, are not true experimental comparisons; statistical significance tests were not calculated.

 

Table B.3
Sanction Activity Within a Two-Year Follow-Up Period,
by High School Diploma/GED Status
Measure High School Diploma or GED No High School Diploma or GED
Integrated Group Traditional Group Integrated Group Traditional Group
For all sample members for whom case files were revieweda
Sanction initiatedb(%) 40.2 57.5*** 51.4 67.0**
Santion imposed (%) 33.3 30.0 40.2 41.2
In sanction at the end of the follow-up period (%) 4.3 5.8 4.7 6.2
Sample sizec 117 120 107 97
For sanctioned individuals onlyd
Average number of months in which sanction was effect 3.3 4.5 4.6 5.5
Number of months in sanction(%)
1 33.3 27.8 20.9 12.5
2 20.5 13.9 18.6 5.0
3 15.4 13.9 9.3 27.5
4-6 18.0 22.2 23.3 30.0
7-12 10.3 16.7 20.9 17.5
13-18 2.6 2.8 7.0 5.0
19 or more 0.0 2.8 0.0 2.5
in sanction at the end of the follow-up period(%) 12.8 19.4 11.6 15.0
Sample size 39 36 43 40
Source: MDRC calculations from MDRC-collected JOBS case file data.
Notes:aTests of statistical significance were calculated for the differences between the integrated and traditional groups. Statistical significance levels are indicated as: * = 10 percent; ** = 5 percent; ***= 1 percent.
b"Sanction inititated" indicates that the integrated case manager or the traditional JOBS case manager decided that a sanction should be implemented.
cTwo individuals who did not indicate whether they had a high school diploma or GED at random assignment were excluded from the subgroup analysis.
dDifferences between the integrated and traditional group outcomes, shown in italics, are not true experimental comparisons; statistical significance tests were not calculated.

 

Table B.4
Two-Year Impacts on Participation in JOB Search, Education, Training, and Work Experience,
by Program, Based on Client Survey Data Only
Outcome Participated (%) Hours of Paticiptation Hours of Participation Among Participants
Program Group Control Group Difference Program Group Control Group Difference Program Group Control Group Difference
Integrated program
Participated in:
Any Activity 47.9 24.2 23.7*** 174.6 69.3 105.2*** 364.2 286.2 77.9
Job searcha 14.2 3.9 10.3*** 13.5 3.6 9.9** 95.3 91.2 4.1
Any education or training activity 33.0 20.3 12.7*** 161.1 65.8 95.3*** 488.1 323.7 164.4
Basic education 20.4 8.8 11.7*** 77.1 15.8 61.3*** 377.7 180.8 196.9
Post-secondary educationb 11.1 6.8 4.4** 63.1 28.3 34.8* 566.2 417.3 148.9
Vocational training 4.1 6.4 -2.3 20.9 21.6 -0.7 512.1 340.5 171.6
Work experience or on-the-job training 8.8 2.2 6.7*** n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Sample sizec 371 357   371 357   varies varies  
Traditional Program
Participated in:
Any Activity 45.3 24.2 21.0*** 262.7 69.3 193.4*** 580.4 286.2 294.2
Job searcha 11.6 3.9 7.7*** 18.4 3.6 14.8*** 158.9 91.2 67.7
Any education or training activity 34.2 20.3 13.9*** 244.3 65.8 178.6*** 715.1 323.7 391.5
Basic education 19.7 8.8 10.9*** 93.9 15.8 78.1*** 477.1 180.8 296.3
Post-secondary educationb 12.1 6.8 5.4** 99.4 28.3 71.1*** 818.1 417.3 400.8
Vocational training 6.3 6.4 0.0 51.0 21.6 29.4** 806.5 340.5 466.0
Work experience or on-the-job training 7.5 2.2 5.4*** n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Sanctioned 30.9 4.2 26.7*** n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Sample sizec 366 357   366 357   varies varies  
Source: MDRC calculations from the Two-Year Client Survey.
Notes: Estimates are regression-ajusted using ordinary least squares, controlling for pre-random assignment characteristics of sample members. Numbers may not add to 100 percent because of rounding. A two-tailed t-test was applied to differences between outcomes for the program and control groups. Statistical significance levels are indicated as: * = 10 percent; ** = 5 percent; *** = 1 percent. Italics are used to signal average outcomes and differences that were calculated only for participants. Unlike the full-sample program and control groups, these program and control groups may differ from each other in average background characteristics. Such differences could have influenced the types of employment-related activities people in the groups attended or their length of stay. If so, the program-control differences might understate or overstate the effects of the programs. Because these impact estimates are less reliable than those based on the full sample, statistical significance tests of these results were not conducted. N/a = not available or not applicable.
aFor integrated and traditional group members, this measure includes participation in life skills workshops.
bCourses for college credit at a two-year or four-year college.
cSample sizes for individual measures vary because of missing values.