An Environmental Scan of Pay for Performance in the Hospital Setting: Final Report. References


Asch SM, Kerr EA, Keesey J, Adams JL, Setodji CM, Malik S, McGlynn EA. (2006) Who Is at Greatest Risk for Receiving Poor-Quality Health Care? New England Journal of Medicine 354(11):1147–1156.

Asch B, Warner J. (1996) Incentive Systems: Theory and Evidence. In Lewin D, Mitchell D, Zaidi M (eds), The Human Resource Management Handbook, Part One. Greenwich, CA: JAI Press, 175–215.

Barnato AE, Lucas FL, Staiger D, Wennberg DE, Chandra A. (2005) Hospital-Level Racial Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction Treatment and Outcomes. Medical Care 43:308–319.

Bazerman MH, Baron J, Skonk K. (2001) You Can't Enlarge the Pie. Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.

Berthiaume JT, Chung RS, Ryskina KL, Walsh J, Legorreta AP. (2006) Aligning Financial Incentives with Quality of Care in the Hospital Setting. Journal for Healthcare Quality 28(2):36–44, 51.

Berthiaume JT, Tyler PA, Ng-Osorio J, LaBresh KA. (2004) Aligning Financial Incentives with “Get with the Guidelines” to Improve Cardiovascular Care. American Journal of Managed Care 10(7 Pt 2):501–504

Berwick DM. (1995). The Toxicity of Pay for Performance. Quality Management in Health Care 4(1):27–33.

Birkmeyer NJ, Birkmeyer JD. (2006) Strategies for Improving Surgical Quality—Should Payers Reward Excellence or Effort? New England Journal of Medicine 354(8):864–870.

Cameron J, Banko KM, Pierce WD. (2001) Pervasive Negative Effects of Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation: The Myth Continues. The Behavior Analyst 24(1):1–44.

Casalino LP, Elster A. (2007) Will Pay-for-Performance and Quality Reporting Affect Health Care Disparities? Health Affairs 26:w405–w414. 

CMS. (2007a) CMS Announces Payment Reforms for Inpatient Hospital Services in 2008. As of August 1, 2007:

CMS. (2007b) National Health Expenditure Prospectus 2006-2016. Office of the Actuary. As of July, 2007:

Davies HT. (2001) Public Release of Performance Data and Quality Improvement: Internal Responses to External Data by US Health Care Providers. Quality in Health Care 10(2):104-10.

Deci EL, Koestner R, Ryan RN. (1999) A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation. Psychological Bulletin 125(6):627–668; discussion 692–700.

Doran T, Fullwood C, Gravelle H, Reeves D, Kontopantellis E, Hiroeh U, Roland M. (2006) Pay-for-Performance Programs in Family Practices in the United Kingdom. New England Journal of Medicine 355(4):375–384.

Fisher ES, Staiger DO, Bynum JPW, Gottlieb DJ. (2007) Creating Accountable Care Organizations: The Extended Hospital Medical Staff. Health Affairs 26(1):w44–w57.

Fisher ES, Wennberg DE, Stukel TA, Gottlieb DJ, Lucas FL, Pinder EL. (2003) The Implications of Regional Variations in Medicare Spending. Part 1: The Content, Quality, and Accessibility of Care. Annals of Internal Medicine 138(4):273–287.

Fisher ES, Wennberg DE, Stukel TA, Gottlieb DJ, Lucas FL, Pinder EL. (2003) The Implications of Regional Variations in Medicare Spending. Part 2: Health Outcomes and Satisfaction with Care. Annals of Internal Medicine 138(4):288–299.

Freedman JL, Cunningham JA, Krismer K. (1992) Inferred Values and the Reverse-Incentive Effect in Induced Compliance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62(3):357–368.

Glickman SW, Ou F, Delong ER, Roe MT, Lytle BL, Mulgund J, Rumsfeld JS, Gibler WB, Ohman EM, Schulman KA, Peterson ED. (2007) Pay for Performance, Quality of Care, and Outcomes in Acute Myocardial Infarction. Journal of the American Medical Association 297:2373–2380.

Gneezy U, Rustichini A. (2000) Pay Enough or Don’t Pay at All. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115(3):791–810.

Grol R, Baker R, Moss F. (2002) Quality Improvement Research: Understanding the Science of Change in Health Care. Quality and Safety in Health Care 11:110–111.

Grol R and Grimshaw J. (2003) From Best Evidence to Best Practice: Effective Implementation of Change in Patients’ Care. The Lancet 362:1225–1230. 

Grossbart SR. (2006) What’s the Return? Assessing the Effect of “Pay-for-Performance” Initiatives on the Quality of Care Delivery. Medical Care Research and Review 63(1 Suppl):29S–48S.

Heath C, Larrick RP, Wu G. (1999) Goals as Reference Points. Cognitive Psychology 38:79–109.

Heffler S, Smith S, Keehan S, Borger C, Clemens MK, Truffer C. (2005) Trends: U.S. Health Spending Projections for 2004–2014: What Do They Portend For The Federal Growth Initiative? Health Affairs 24(2):465–472. 

Holmstrom B, Milgrom P. (1991) Multitask Principal-Agent Analyses: Incentive Contracts, Asset Ownership, and Job Design. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 7:24–52.

Institute of Medicine. (2006) Rewarding Provider Performance: Aligning Incentives in Medicare. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Institute of Medicine. (2001) Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Jha AK, Li Z, Orav EJ, Epstein AM. (2007) Where Do Elderly Blacks Receive Hospital Care? The Concentration and Quality of Hospitals That Care for Elderly Black Americans. Archives of Internal Medicine 167:1177–1182.

Kahneman D, Knetsch JL, Thaler R. (1986) Fairness as a Constraint on Profit Seeking: Entitlements in the Market. American Economic Review 76.

Kahneman D, Tversky A. (1979) Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk. Econometrica 47(2):263–292.

Kivetz R, Urminsky O, Zheng Y. (2006) The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention. Journal of Marketing Research 43(1):39–58.

Leapfrog Group. (2007) Incentives and Rewards Compendium. As of July 30, 2007:

Lindenauer PK, Remus D, Roman S, Rothberg MB, Benjamin EM, Ma A, Bratzler DW. (2007) Public Reporting and Pay for Performance in Hospital Quality Improvement. New England Journal of Medicine 356(5):486–496.

Loewenstein G, Prelec D. (1992) Anomalies in Intertemporal Choice: Evidence and an Interpretation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 573–597.

Lowenstein R. (2001 Feb 11) Exuberance Is Rational. New York Times Magazine.

McClellan MB. (2006 Feb 7) Presentation given at National Pay for Performance Summit, Los Angeles, CA.

McGlynn EA, Asch SM, Adams J, Keesey J, Hicks J, DeChristofaro A, Kerr EA. (2003) The Quality of Health Care Delivered to Adults in the United States,” New England Journal of Medicine 348(26):2635–2645.

McNeil BJ, Pauker SG, Sox HC, Tversky A. (1982) On the Elicitation of Preferences for Alternative Therapies. New England Journal of Medicine 306(21):1259–1262.

Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC). (March 2005) Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy. Washington, DC: MedPAC. 

Med-Vantage. (2006) Provider Pay-for-Performance Incentive Programs: 2005 National Study Results. San Francisco, CA: Med-Vantage, Inc.

Mehrotra A, Pearson SD, Coltin KL, Kleinman KP, Singer JA, Rabson B, Schneider EC. (2007) The Response of Physician Groups to P4P Incentives. American Journal of Managed Care 13(5):249–255.

Meyerowitz BE, Chaiken S. (1987) The Effect of Message Framing on Breast Self-Examination Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52(3):500–510.

Nahra TA, Reiter KL, Hirth RA, Shermer JE, Wheeler JRC. (2006) Cost-Effectiveness of Hospital Pay-for-Performance Incentives. Medical Care Research and Review 63(1 Suppl):49S–72S.

Peterson ED, Roe MT, Mulgund J, et al. (2006) Association Between Hospital Process Performance and Outcomes Among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes. Journal of the American Medical Association 295(16):1912–1920.

Pham, HH, Coughlan, O’Malley AS. (2006).  The Impact of Quality-Reporting Programs on Hospital Operations.  Health Affairs.  25(5): 1412-1422.

Premier, Inc. (2006) Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)/Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration Project: Project Overview and Findings from Year One. Charlotte, NC: Author.

Reiter KL, Nahra TA, Wheeler JRC. (2006) Hospital Responses to Pay-for-Performance Incentives. Health Services Management Research 19(2):123–134.

Rosenthal MB, Frank RG, Li Z, Epstein AM. (2005) Early Experience with Pay-for-Performance: From Concept to Practice. Journal of the American Medical Association 294(14):1788–1793.

Rothe H. (1970). Output Rates Among Welders: Productivity and Consistency Following Removal of a Financial Incentive System. Journal of Applied Psychology 54:549–551.

Sauter KM, Bokhour BG, White B, Young G, Burgess JF, Berlowitz D, Wheeler JRC. (2007). Early Experiences of a Hospital-based Pay-for-Performance Program. Journal of Healthcare Management 52(2):95–108. 

Schuster MA, McGlynn EA, Brook RH. (1998) How Good Is the Quality of Health Care in the United States? Milbank Quarterly 76(4):517–563.

Shekelle P. (2007 Apr 4) Medicare’s Hospital Compare Performance Measures and Mortality Rates. Journal of the American Medical Association 297(13):1430–1431; author reply 1431.

Skinner J, Chandra A, Staiger D, Lee J, McClellan M. (2005) Mortality After Acute Myocardial Infarction in Hospitals That Disproportionately Treat Black Patients. Circulation 112:2634–2641.

Sorbero ME, Damberg CL, Shaw R, et al. (2006) Assessment of Pay-for-Performance Options for Medicare Physician Services: Final Report. RAND Working Paper prepared for the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Thaler R. (1985) Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice. Marketing Science 4(3):199–214.

Thompson RE. (2005) Is Pay for Performance Ethical? Physician Executive 31(6):60–62.

Titmuss RM. (1970) The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy. New York, NY: Allen & Unwin.

Ubel PA, Hirth RA, Chernew ME, Fendrick AM. (2003) What Is the Price of Life and Why Doesn’t It Increase at the Rate of Inflation? Archives of Internal Medicine 163(14):1637–1641.

Wenger NS, Solomon DH, Roth CP, MacLean CH, Saliba D, et al. (2003) The Quality of Medical Care Provided to Vulnerable Community-Dwelling Older Patients. Annals of Internal Medicine 139(9):740–747.

Werner RM, Bradlow ET. (2006) Relationship Between Medicare’s Hospital Compare Performance Measures and Mortality Rates. Journal of the American Medical Association 296(22):2694–2702.

Williams SC, Schmaltz SP, Morton DJ, Koss RG, Loeb JM. (2005) Quality of Care in U.S. Hospitals as Reflected by Standardized Measures, 2002–2004. New England Journal of Medicine 353(3):255–264.

View full report


"PayPerform07.pdf" (pdf, 1.22Mb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®