Early Implementation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program: Findings From Exploratory Site Visits and Review of Program Plans. Appendix D: Profiles of 22 Selected Local Welfare-to-Work Grant Programs

Grantee:  Economic Development Industrial Corporation (EDIC) Office of Jobs and Community Services (JCS)

Location:  Boston, MA

Funding:  $5.9 million Formula Funds for FY98

Organization:  JCS, in EDIC, an agency reporting to the Mayor, is the JTPA SDA for the city (as distinct from the separately incorporated Boston PIC). JCS and the PIC (within the Regional Employment Board) designed the WtW programs to operate in conjunction with the 3 one-stop Career Centers in Boston.

WtW Program(s):  EDIC/JCS operates two WtW program types: 7 pre-employment preparation Employer Partner Programs (EPP) and 2 occupation-based Enhanced Community Service Programs (ECS).

The EPPs prepares welfare recipients for entry-level jobs that are in demand and which have some potential for upgrading skills and employment. JCS collaborates with specific employers/businesses that actively design and implement each program and make a commitment to hire those who complete the program. Each participating employer has a non-profit organization partner which is responsible for case-management. The EPPs operate in cycles of 4-6 weeks (determined by the employer) of occupation- specific pre-employment preparation classes, followed by 4 weeks of workplace-based work experience/internship. (Marriott Corp., Benjamin Health Care, Partners Health Care, U.S. Trust Corp., TJMaxx, Caritas- Christi Health, and a employer collaborative that includes hotels, hospitals, and neighborhood groups.)

The ECSs, operated by two community-based organizations, provide a more structured, work experience-type assignment (approximately 3-6 months long) for individuals with weaker employment skills. ECS assignments are also occupation-specific, designed as community service assignments combined with enhanced activities (e.g., basic skills) as appropriate.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles

Special Feature(s):  Major role for local business partners (Marriott Corp.; Benjamin Health Care; Partners Health Care; U.S.Trust Corp.; TJMaxx; Caritas-Christi Health; and a collaborative that includes hotels, hospitals and neighborhood organizations); and for non-profit service providers (Jewish Vocational Services, Action for Boston Community Development, Morgan Memorial Goodwill, Caritas-Christi Health).


Grantee:  The Workplace, Incorporated

Location:  Bridgeport, CT

Funding:  $1.5 million Formula Funds for FY98 and $5 million Round 1 Competitive Funds

Organization:  The Workplace, Inc. (TWI) is the workforce development board (formerly the PIC) for Connecticuts southwestern region. It serves a 20-town area, including the cities of Bridgeport, Derby, Greenwich, Norwalk, and Stamford. TWI oversees the operation of 15 WtW programs across this service area.

WtW Program(s):  WtW grant funds support two types of programs. Collectively, the programs emphasize job retention and the attainment of occupational as well as softer life skills. A high support model, combines an initial psycho-social assessment and case management with a variety of supported work opportunities. WtW clients enrolled in this program also receive job readiness classes, and placement and retention services. This program model was operating at three sites (Bridgeport, Stamford, and Derby) as of May 1999. The local initiatives model consists of a collection of local projects in 4 localities, each of which targets specific sub-populations (e.g., public housing residents, substance abusers, persons with limited literacy, and noncustodial fathers), especially those with serious employment problems.

Some of the services offered include: job placement programs, family mentoring, and mental health and substance abuse counseling, job placement, career ladders, and job retention services. Responsibility for administering these services falls to 8 contractors. Overall, TWIs WtW programs are designed to reassure employers that WtW participants will obtain the support they need to enter and succeed in the labor market.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles with specific programs targeting noncustodial parents, chemically dependent individuals, and public housing residents.

Special Feature(s):  Fifteen fairly separate programs, most focusing on participants with serious problems. The High Support Model employs professional case workers to provide intensive case management and counseling services to WtW participants.


Grantee:  Consortium for Worker Education (CWE)

Location:  New York , NY

Funding:  $5 million Round 1 Competitive Funds

Organization:  CWE, a non-profit education and training agency established and supported by NYC labor unions, developed the Satellite Child Care Program (SCCP). To implement, expand and manage the SCCP, CWE created a subsidiary organization, Satellite Child Care, Inc. (SSCI).

WtW Program(s):  The SCCP is funded by the WtW grants and has two objectives: (1) to increase the supply of quality child care available to low-income neighborhoods; and (2) to train WtW-eligible individuals to be satellite child care providers--salaried employees caring for four children each. SSCI has 10 contractors who prepare participants to become child care providers through classroom training and work experience. Contractors are responsible for outreach and intake, monitoring clients progress, and providing training (both in the classroom and in child-care centers). The screening of applicants is rigorous; potential participants must: pass a home inspection and a drug test; not have any relatives in the state child abuse data base; pass a criminal background check; and pass a medical examination.

Participants then receive two weeks of vocational job readiness to further determine if they are responsible enough to be child care providers and provide pre-employment preparation. Participants who complete this stage are then placed in a 16 week internship. Each week of this internship entails 3 days of work experience at a child care center and 2 days of classroom training. In order to become an independent provider, the individual must meet all city requirements for registration of family day care providers and pass a subsequent home inspection. Once a participant has completed all preparation, training, and registration requirements, she is hired by the SCCI as a satellite child care provider and is paid a union-scale salary of $18,200 a year plus benefits and union membership.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles are screened, but there are some special requirements for child care occupations, as noted above.

Special Feature(s):  Expanding the availability of quality child care; creating relatively high-paying, unionized jobs as satellite providers affiliated with day care centers. Intensive preparation, internship, and on-going support, including in-home computers and on-line training and support groups.


Grantee:  Non-Profit Assistance Corporation (N-Pac)

Location:  New York , NY

Funding:  $4.9 million Round 1 Competitive Funds

Organization:  The Non-Profit Assistance Corporation, affiliated with Seedco, a non- profit community development organization, received competitive funds to operate the Neighborhood Strategies Project Works Program (NSP Works). NSP Works is managed by N-Pac, with three neighborhood-based non-profits contracted to operate the program in the Bronx, the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, and Washington Heights/Inman.

WtW Program(s):  The first step in the NSP Works program is to provide clients with two weeks of up-front job readiness workshops. If the client does not find a job during this period, he/she is placed in simulated work for 35 hours per week. This component involves 20 hours per week at an internship and 15 hours of education/skills training. Many of the internships are either at the program office or with one of the non- profits serving as sub-contractors to N-Pac. The educational component is offered at each of the three program sites, with instruction by New York City Board of Education teachers. Skills training is also offered at all three sites and is funded by JTPA funds. Participants in the program also receive ongoing case management and career development support for two years after the date of enrollment.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles. However, the non-profit service providers operate and recruit in neighborhoods with large immigrant populations, therefore NSP participants are primarily limited English-speaking TANF recipients.

Special Feature(s):  Strong central management and administrative procedures by Seedco/N-Pac, combined with strong local neighborhood-based service. Unique target group of limited English-speaking participants.


Grantee:  Philadelphia Workforce Development Corporation (PWDC) Transitional Work Corporation (TWC)

Location:  Philadelphia, PA

Funding:  FY98 Formula Funds (PWDC and TWC) and private funding (TWC)

Organization:  The WtW program in Philadelphia--Greater Philadelphia Works--is administered by PWDC. Regional Service Centers and the Transitional Work Corporation provide the infrastructure for the Greater Philadelphia Works program. The Regional Service Centers, located in different areas of Philadelphia, offer job readiness and job search services. The TWC is a newly established non-profit organization specifically created to manage a new temporary employment program called Philadelphia @Work.

WtW Program(s):  Welfare recipients nearing the 2 year work-trigger time limit may receive job search/job readiness assistance through the Regional Services Centers. Those with little to no work experience and unable to find unsubsidized employment may participate in TWCs temporary employment program. TWC participants work in temporary jobs for 25 hours per week, for up to six months while earning $5.15 per hour. In addition to work, TWC participants also engage in 10 hours of training each week focused on remediation and skills upgrading. Upon completing a temporary work assignment, TWC participants are referred back to a RSC for job placement services. PWDC has also received a WtW Round I competitive grant that targets teens and noncustodial fathers.

Target Population(s):  TWC targets eligible WtW clients nearing the two year work requirement time limit with little to no work experience.

Special Feature(s):  TWC provides up to $400 to participants in the form of employment retention bonuses. Employers/supervisors of TWC clients receive $50 a month per client they employ.


Grantee:  Human Resources Development Foundation (HRDF), Incorporated

Location:  Morgantown, WV

Funding:  $500,000 in Formula Funds and $4.9 million Round 2 Competitive Funds

Organization:  The Human Resource Development Foundation, Inc. a private, non- profit corporation is responsible for the designing and implementation of the WtW-funded Comprehensive Employment Program (CEP) across 29 counties. The service area includes mostly rural areas and small towns.

WtW Program(s):  The program provides assessment/case management services, a 4- week orientation/job readiness workshop, followed by occupational exploration, work experience, job placement assistance, skills enhancement, and a wide range of supportive services. Two major components of the program are job retention and advancement. To ensure that clients receive these services, HRDFs design includes: wage supplements; employment incentive payments; and ongoing job support provided by mentors and HRDF staff. Participants receive a stipend of $1.60 per hour beginning in the 4-week job readiness, and the program was planning to supplement wages of persons who enter low-wage jobs.

All of the above services are offered at 6 service hubs located throughout the state, with each hub serving between 3 and 7 counties. Due to the remoteness of much of the service area, an emphasis has been placed on providing clients with transportation to and from service centers.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles

Special Feature(s):  Providing transportation enabling clients to get to one of the 6 program hubs for services. Stipends and wage supplements are integral to the program.


Grantee:  Nashville Career Advancement Center (NCAC)

Location:  Nashville, TN

Funding:  $2.6 million Formula Funds and $4.1 million Round 2 Competitive Funds

Organization:  The Nashville Career Advancement Center is responsible for administering the areas WtW formula grant as well as a Round 2 competitive grant, the latter in partnership with Catholic Charities of Tennessee, the Salvation Army and the Metro Transit Authority. The WtW program is closely connected to the Tennessee Department of Human Services and its TANF work program, called Families First (operated through 4 consortia of local community-based organizations). NCAC is the lead agency for one of these consortia, which also includes the metropolitan housing authority (MDHA) and Nashville Technical Institute. TN DHS/Families First is the primary source of participant referrals to the WtW program.

WtW Program(s):  The WtW program, called Pathways, is based on the Project Match model. It is designed to help eligible WtW participants find and keep employment by emphasizing a supportive, peer-group environment. This environment is created through a series of regular monthly meetings. A key program feature is the dispensation from the welfare agency that allows Pathways participants to count family-related tasks and volunteer work as work activities consistent with a required Personal Responsibility Plan. Pathways services are highly individualized, and include counseling, job-coaching, job readiness and various supportive services.

Target Population(s):  Main target group is all WtW eligibles; program hopes to also recruit some noncustodial parents.

Special Feature(s):  The Pathways program is, comparatively, an intensive, labor-intensive, and very individualized model. It is being implemented in a way that has the potential to replicate the model across all of Nashville, and thus represents an unusual attempt to bring an intensive model up to substantial scale by developing an extensive contractor infrastructure.


Grantee:  Private Industry Council for Memphis, Shelby, and Fayette Counties

Location:  Memphis, TN

Funding:  $6.8 million Formula Funds with $4 million of this to be used over the period 4/98 - 9/99.

Organization:  The PIC for Memphis, Shelby and Fayette Counties administers funds for employment and training services including WtW formula funds. Seven area community based organizations were selected by the PIC to receive WtW funding. Potential participants are referred to WtW program staff at the PIC by either DHS staff, or by other local service providers.

WtW Program(s):  WtW funds are used to provide a wide variety of services for WtW participants, including both enhancements of existing services as well as entirely new, more targeted programs. PIC WtW staff conduct eligibility review and determine appropriate referrals to contract service providers. Contractors offer a range of services including intake, on-going case management, job readiness, job placement, work experience, OJT, community service, post-employment, job retention and supportive services. Some contractors focus on specific occupations or skills (e.g., construction, cable installation, computer training).

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles; some contractors target particular groups such as noncustodial parents, substance abusers, or homeless individuals.

Special Feature(s):  One contractor program, targeting noncustodial parents, takes a unique

approach. In addition to the extensive services offered to address the unique needs of noncustodial parents, this organization also administers fee-for-service programs with about 150 local businesses in which they recruit, screen and place employees with employers and pay them through their own payroll. They also conduct training programs to teach employers how to work with and address the needs of former welfare clients who are new employees.


Grantee:  United Way of Central Alabama

Location:  Birmingham, AL

Funding:  $5 million Round 1 Competitive Funds

Organization:The United Way of Central Alabama is responsible for the implementation of Birmingham Works. The Jefferson County Department of Human Resources refers potential participants to the United Way. Services are provided through five neighborhood service centers which allow services to be provide to participants nearer their homes and places of employment.

WtW Program(s):  Birmingham Works employs a work-first model. This program emphasizes intensive case management to determine barriers to employment and prepare individuals to enter unsubsidized employment. Once placed in a job, job coaches work close with participants and employers. They offer participants extensive support services to promote job retention. Job coaches also serve as a resource for employers who are experiencing difficulties with an WtW participant. Other components of Birmingham Works include proactive job development resulting in a database of employment opportunities available to WtW eligible clients, and strong coordination with private employers and community partners.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles

Special Feature(s):  The Birmingham Works WtW grant was the outgrowth of a coordinated effort to plan services in Jefferson County. Intensive case management and job coaching services also distinguish this program. Further, proactive job development has resulted in an extensive database of job placement opportunities and fosters positive relationships between program staff and employers.


Grantee:  DePaul University

Location:  Chicago, IL

Funding:  $5 million Round 1 Competitive Funds

Organization:The Office of Applied Innovations (OAI) of DePaul University is the administering agency for this grant.

WtW Program(s):  OAI is using WtW funds to oversee and facilitate a collaborative effort with several community organizations to undertake job creation and community development activities as well as assist welfare recipients in preparing for, obtaining, and retaining jobs. Each of the collaborating organizations plan to work together to create a common client tracking system and provide integrated intake for all of the partner programs. Three programs are operated by OAI using WtW funds: the Hospitality Occupational Skills Training Program (HOST), which trains workers and provides internships in the hospitality industry; Community Kitchens, a culinary arts training program; and Developing Employment Opportunity, which serves ex-offenders. All three training programs are offered in English and Spanish.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles

Special Feature(s):  In the HOST program, DePaul has used WtW funds to create a program that takes the fact that they are working with harder-to-serve clients into account. This entails more of a focus on initial preparation and follow-up to ensure that current participants find and keep employment. DePaul also has a staff person for community and industry relations. This individual works with the partners in their collaborative as well as with employers in the community and trade associations to market a positive image and to develop new business and employment opportunities.


Grantee:  Michigan WORKS! Agency, City of Detroit Employment and Training Department

Location:  Detroit, MI

Funding:  $4.9 million Round 1 Competitive Funds

Organization:The City of Detroit Employment and Training Department, the JTPA SDA, is responsible for the design and implementation of a WtW initiative closely coordinated with the states TANF-funded Work First program. Four local TANF offices serve as the primary source of referrals. Services are provided by 8 WtW contractors, some of which are also TANF work program service providers.

WtW Program(s):  The WtW program features a strong emphasis on placing participants in subsidized jobswhat are termed public sector employment (PSE) jobs. PSE slots are temporary positions (for up to 6 months) at public or private sector employers, in which the full wage for the participant is subsidized. Employers are recruited by contractors to set aside positions specifically for WtW participants. Program services also include assessment/case management, job readiness workshops, job development and placement assistance, skills enhancement, and a wide range of supportive services (with special emphasis on child care and transportation).

Target Population(s):  The program serves all WtW eligibles and plans to serve noncustodial parents as well.

Special Feature(s):  The major distinguishing feature of this project is its reliance on subsidized employment.


Grantee:  River Valley Resources (RVR), Inc.

Location:  Decatur County, IN

Funding:  $1 million Formula Funds this year and next and $5 million Round 1 Competitive Funds for use in the 19 county RVR service area

Organization:  River Valley Resources is service delivery entity for JTPA and other employment programs in a largely rural, 19 county area of Southeastern Indiana. Additionally, in Decatur County, River Valley Resources serves as the sole contractor service provider for the TANF work program and plays an integral role in local service planning bodies.

WtW Program(s):  This program seeks to initially place WtW eligible TANF clients into either of two subsidized positions: work experience or job creation. Work experience is intended to provide an opportunity for a WtW eligible individual to obtain employment in an existing position. Job creation positions are intended to be new jobs created for the purpose of employing a WtW eligible individual. Both types of positions are subsidized and it is the expectation that after a probationary work period, employers will take clients on as unsubsidized employees. Staff of RVR in Decatur County also provide clients with intensive case management throughout and beyond the period of subsidized employment.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles

Special Feature(s):  A high level of community support and involvement regarding helping families in welfare exists in Decatur County. Employers are active members of service planning bodies and are anxious to employ and support WtW participants.


Grantee:  Wisconsin Department of Corrections (DOC)

Location:  Milwaukee, WI

Funding:  $1 million of the states 15% Discretionary Funds, matched with $800,000 from DOC.

Organization:  The Wisconsin Department of Corrections (DOC) is responsible for the design and implementation of the Non-Traditional Opportunities for Work (NOW) Program in Milwaukee County.

WtW Program(s):  The NOW program serves WtW-eligible noncustodial fathers who are under supervision of DOC. The program seeks to first enhance employability, job retention, and capacity to pay child support. The program has a further goal of re-connecting noncustodial fathers with their children and to enhance parenting skills. DOC probation and parole agents do assessment, serve as case managers, and refer participants to Wisconsin Works (W-2) agencies. NOW participants then receive a comprehensive range of services, through local W-2 agencies including job search/placement assistance, subsidized employment, job retention services, post-employment education and training services, parenting skills development workshops, child support and visitation mediation, and a long list of support services.

Target Population(s):  The programs target population is probationers and parolees in the community and inmates in minimum security correction centers nearing release who are noncustodial fathers meeting WtW eligibility criteria.

Special Feature(s):  Program focuses on a group that faces substantial barriers to employment and has traditionally received little assistance from the welfare system. The program also seeks to instill some sense of parental responsibility in these men in order to reconnect them to their families. Fairly unique is that the program is developing linkages among the corrections system, child support enforcement, and W-2 agencies.


Grantee:  Dallas County Local Workforce Development Board

Location:  Dallas, TX

Funding:$5 million Formula Funds and $5 million Round 2 Competitive Funds

Organization:  The Dallas County Workforce Development Board is responsible for establishing Project ACCESS (Accessible Community Collaboration Employment Service System). Services are delivered through a network of more than 20 contract service providers. Referrals are received from the TANF work program CHOICES, operated by Lockheed Martin in one-stop centers.

WtW Program(s):  The Board plans to provide a comprehensive range of employment, training, and case management services through a network of service providers. Each service provider is implementing their own approach with the common goals of promoting employment, job retention, skills upgrading, and long-term self-sufficiency for WtW eligibles. An important aim of Project ACCESS is to enroll TANF recipients in WtW while they are still participating in CHOICES (Texas TANF employment program) so that once terminated from TANF, these individuals can continue to receive extended case management, job retention and placement services, skills upgrading, and support services

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles; some contractors target sub-populations such as individuals living in public housing and Section 8 assisted housing units.

Special Feature(s):  The Dallas County Workforce Development Board has an extensive network of subcontracted service providers. Their close linkage with local housing authorities offers a distinctive approach.


Grantee:  Houston Works

Location:  Houston, TX

Funding:  $1.9 million Formula Funds and $5 million Round 1 Competitive Funds

Organization:  Houston Works is a non-profit organization that serves as a subcontractor to the Houston Galveston Area Council (HGAC; the local workforce development board). In this subcontracting role, Houston Works operates service centers through which JTPA, CHOICES (Texas TANF work program) and other program services are provided. For the purposes of WtW, Houston Works has contracted with a network of seven community-based service providers.

WtW Program(s):  Although each WtW service provider employs a slightly different approach, WtW programs are intended to provide a comprehensive range of assessment, case management, job placement assistance, post- employment education and training services, and support services. The WtW-funded services are intended to promote employment, job retention, and long-term self-sufficiency of WtW eligibles.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles. Different subcontract service providers build on expertise with different sub-populations such as immigrants and public housing residents. The program anticipates that about a third of its participants will be noncustodial fathers.

Special Feature(s):  As a provider of CHOICES services, Houston Works will have ready access to WtW eligible participants to be referred to WtW service providers.


Grantee:  Tarrant County, The Workforce Network

Location:  Fort Worth, TX

Funding:  $2.5 million Formula Funds per year for 3 years, $3.2 million Round 2 Competitive Funds, and $2.5 million in CHOICES/JOBS Funds

Organization:  The Tarrant County Workforce Development Board, also referred to as Work Advantage, administers funds for employment and training services to residents of Tarrant County, including the cities of Forth Worth and Arlington. Work Advantage administers CHOICES (Texas TANF work program) and WIA funds.

WtW Program(s):  The formula and competitive grant funds are being used to enhance services provided under CHOICES as well as for new, targeted programs to promote job placement and retention. Additionally, some competitive funds have been designated for capacity building initiatives designed to enhance systems, rather than service specific individuals. There are 3 primary service contractors that will offer services to WtW participants.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles; Different subcontract service providers build on expertise with different sub-populations such as homeless individuals and substance abusers.

Special Feature(s):  The Tarrant County WDB is using WtW competitive funds to continue an effort to create a wide area computer network that will allow community service providers (specifically small, often church-based, providers) access to a common set of data around individuals served, services received, and services available. Another innovative feature is a social marketing effort to determine why low income individuals do not utilize available services and participate in programs designed to assist them in becoming self-sufficient. Additionally, several service providers in the Fort Worth area are faith-based institutions.


Grantee:  Los Angeles County PIC

Location:  Los Angeles, CA

Funding:  $3 million Round 2 Competitive Funds

Organization:  The LA County PIC, Department of Community and Senior Services (CSS) received a competitive grant to operate the Noncustodial Parent-to-Work (NCPtW) Program. This competitive grant program expands and enhances the existing Noncustodial Parent Demonstration (NCP Demo) Program in LA County.

WtW Program(s):  The NCPtW program expands the population targeted under the NCP Demo to include noncustodial parents who are current in their child support payments and who are employed 25 hours per week or more. The NCPtW program is designed to provide a range of job search and job readiness services, peer support groups, education and training opportunities, and job retention and advancement services to participants. The program also helps noncustodial parents addresses issues relating to child support and taking a more active role in the lives of their children.

Target Population(s):  This program focuses exclusively on noncustodial parents.

Special Feature(s):  Post-employment focus which includes components that attempt to instill parental responsibility, coping skills, and job advancement in noncustodial fathers, including an 18 session Peer Support Group.


Grantee:  SDAs 3 & 12: Full Employment Council, Inc.

Location:  Kansas City, MO

Funding:  $2.5 million Formula Funds and $4.4 million Round 2 Competitive Funds

Organization:  The Full Employment Council, Incorporated (FEC) is a private non- profit organization that serves as the SDA for Kansas City, MO and five surrounding counties. The FEC operates as the administrative entity for the 2 PICs in this area and serves as the coordinating and operational arm for all federally-funded employment and training initiatives serving economically disadvantaged individuals. The FEC works closely with the Local Investment Commission (LINC), the Division of Family Services (the TANF agency), and the Division of Employment Security (ES) and is co-located with TANF and ES in various offices and one-stops throughout SDAs 3 and 12.

WtW Program(s):  WtW funds are used in large part to provide pre-employment services similar to those provided through JTPA programs, including job preparation, job readiness, job placement and retention services. WtW funds are combined with other employment and training dollars to support a range of services with costs being allocated to various funding sources based on program eligibility after services are provided. Formula funds are primarily being used to fund services for long-term TANF recipients. The competitive grant is being used primarily to fund services for noncustodial parents. Additionally, the FEC is using WtW grant funds to serve a broader array of customers than they do with their other funding streams (including JTPA, Enhanced Enterprise Community Funds, and other state and local funds).

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles can receive services; groups targeted for inclusion in this programs client base are noncustodial parents and long-term TANF recipients.

Special Feature(s):  The financial incentives available to clients meet certain work-related goals are very generous. After 90 days of continuous employment, WtW customers receive a $300 voucher. Once a client has completed 9 months of continuous employment, clients receive a $1500 voucher. These vouchers are good for work-related expenses ranging from the purchase of work clothes to car repairs.


Grantee:  San Francisco PIC

Location:  San Francisco, CA

Funding:  $4.2 million Round 1 Competitive Funds

Organization:  The San Francisco PIC acts as the SDA for both the City and County of San Francisco. In addition to being the WtW formula grantee and a WtW competitive grantee, the PIC is the fiscal agent and monitor for all WtW programs funded by TANF.

WtW Program(s):  The competitive grant is used to fund three program components: (1) employment retention services, (2) a wage-based community service pilot, and (3) a construction careers program. These three components were designed to address identified deficiencies in the local employment and training infrastructure. Competitive grant funds are used to subcontract with five community based organizations to provide job placement and retention services, with each contractor targeted a sub-population it has expertise in serving. Competitive funds are blended with formula and other employment and training funds that enables the CALWORKs program in San Francisco to invest more heavily in key service areas identified as requiring additional resources.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles

Special Feature(s):  A consortium of private employers pledged $3.7 million in 1998 to support TANF recipients efforts to progress toward self-sufficiency.


Grantee:  Southern Nevada SDA, Nevada Business Services

Location:  Las Vegas, NV

Funding:  $7 million Formula Funds and half of the states allotment of 15% Discretionary Funds.

Organization:  Nevada Business Services, a non-profit/quasi-governmental agency, serves as the administrative arm of the PIC and is responsible for managing the WtW program.

WtW Program(s):  The Southern Nevada Private Industry Council is responsible for designing and implementing a WtW program for noncustodial parents and TANF recipients. The program provides a range of employment, training, and support services for noncustodial parents and will provide similar services to two distinct groups of TANF recipients: (1) those who are working, and (2) those who are not working and not receiving any employment or case management services. The goal of the program is to enhance employability, job retention, wage advancement, and the capacity to pay child support. Several contractors provide a comprehensive range of services, including job search and job placement assistance, work experience, life skills workshops, education and training, job retention, and support services.

Target Population(s):  This program targets three specific groups: 1) noncustodial parents, 2) TANF recipients who are working, and 3) TANF recipients who are not working and not receiving any employment or case management services.

Special Feature(s):  One program serves noncustodial parents exclusively.


Grantee:  City of Phoenix Human Service Department

Location:  Phoenix, AZ

Funding:  $1 million Formula Funds and $5 million in Round 1 Competitive Funds

Organization:  The EARN (Employment and Respect Now) Alliance is a division of the City of Phoenix Human Services Department (HSD) Employment and Training Division. EARN is headquartered in the Citys Enterprise Community (EC) and was created for the sole purpose of operating WtW within the EC.

WtW Program(s):  EARN focuses on three strategies to assist WtW participants: (1) assisting clients overcome barriers to employment (through job readiness training and post-employment, retention services), (2) assisting small employers in accessing the benefits of technology and workforce development, and (3) enabling WtW participants to use technology that connects data banks of learning, job opportunities, and tax credits to Electronic Community Access Machines.

Each participant is assigned a JOBS case worker (from the Department of Employment Security) and a Business Development Specialist/case worker from EARN. Program components include a two-week job readiness course operated by 3 subcontractors: Marriott Corp, Mesa Community College, and Chicanos Por La Causa.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles residing within Phoenixs Enterprise Community

Special Feature(s):  The Enterprise Community-based EARN program has created partnerships with local employers such as Sprint and Bank One; these partnerships allow participants to continue their work development by receiving on the job computer training tailored to the needs of business. City is leasing vehicles to WtW participants to address transportation problems.


Grantee:  Tri-Valley Private Industry Council

Location:  Yakima, WA

Funding:  $2.4 million Formula Funds and a portion of the states 15% Discretionary Funds

Organization:  The Tri-Valley Private Industry Council serves three counties: Yakima, Kittitas, and Klickitat. Referrals of potential WtW eligibles are received from the Washington Department of Social and Health Services. Services are provided through a network of community based providers.

WtW Program(s):  Through a highly collaborative system involving local service providers and the TANF office, the program provides WtW eligible TANF recipients assistance in preparing for, obtaining, and retaining subsidized and unsubsidized job placements. Supportive services, through TANF and WtW are also provided as are job retention services. In collaboration with the local prosecuting attorneys office, WtW also funds services to assist noncustodial parents become employed so as to avoid being determined in contempt of court for not meeting child support payment requirements.

Target Population(s):  All WtW eligibles including noncustodial parents.

Special Feature(s):  This PIC is an excellent example of a community-wide effort to provide a broad range of employment opportunities to hard-to-serve welfare recipients. The program for noncustodial parents offers an unique use of WtW funds as a means of assisting individuals in obtaining employment, so that they can subsequently make child support payments and avoid contempt procedures in the court system.