The Early Achievement and Development Gap. References


[a] For the remainder of this brief, all of the gaps are described in SD units.


[1] Duncan, G. J., & Magnuson, K. A. (2005). Can family socioeconomic resources account for racial and ethnic test score gaps? Future of Children, 15(1), 35-54.; Heckman, J. J. (2006). Skill formation and the economics of investing in disadvantaged children. Science, 312, 1900-1902.; Magnuson, K., & Duncan, G. (2006). The role of family socioeconomic resources in racial test score gaps. Developmental Review, 26, 365-399.

[2] Halle, T., Forry, N., Hair, E., Perper, K., Wandner, L., Wessel, J., & Vick, J. (2009). Disparities in early learning and development: Lessons from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study тАУ Birth Cohort (ECLS-B): Executive Summary. Retrieved from: ExecSumm.pdf.

[3] Halle, et al. (2009).

[4] Halle, et al. (2009).

[5] Fernald, A., Marchman, V. A., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 16, 234-248.

[6] Magnuson, K., Waldfogel, J., & Washbrook, E. (2012). The development of SES gradients in skills during the school years: Evidence from the United States and England. In J. Ermisch, M. Jantti, & T. Smeeding (Eds.), From Parents to Children: The Intergenerational Transmission of Advantage. New York: Russell Sage.

[7] Magnuson, Waldfogel, & Washbrook. (2012). 

[8] Halle, et al. (2009).

[9] Magnuson, Waldfogel, & Washbrook (2012). 

[10] Reardon, S. F. (2014). National Report Card: Education. In State of the Union: The Poverty and Inequality Report 2014 (p. 53-59). Stanford, CA: The Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality.

[11] Reardon, S. F. (2011). The widening academic-achievement gap between the rich and the poor: New evidence and possible explanations. In G. Duncan and R. Murnane (Eds.), Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. New York: Russell Sage.

[12] Halle, et al. (2009).

[13] Halle, et al. (2009).

[14] Halle, et al. (2009).

[15] Magnuson, K. (2007). Understanding School Readiness Gaps: SES, Race, and Ethnicity. Powerpoint presented at the Mary McEvoy Lecture Series on Early Childhood and Public Policy, University of Minnesota, Feb. 17. 

[16] Magnuson (2007).  

[17] Halle, et al. (2009).

[18] Waldfogel, J. (2013). Setting the stage: Evidence of developmental and school readiness gaps. Notes prepared for a meeting at the Foundation for Child Development, June 14, 2013.

[19] Washbrook, E., Waldfogel, J., Bradbury, B., Corak, M., & Ghanghro, A. A. (2012). The development of young children of immigrants in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Child Development, 83, 1591-1607.

[20] Magnuson (2007).

[21] Halle, et al. (2009).

[22] Duncan, G., & Murnane, R. (2011). Introduction: The American Dream, then and now. In G. Duncan and R. Murnane (Eds.), Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. New York: Russell Sage.

[23]Bailey, M. J., & Dynarski, S. M. (2011). Inequality in postsecondary education. In G. Duncan and R. Murnane (Eds.), Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. New York: Russell Sage.

[24] Duncan & Murnane (2011).

[25] Ratcliffe, C., & McKernan, S. (2012). Childhood poverty and its lasting consequences. Urban Institute. Retrieved from:

[26] Ratcliffe & McKernan (2012).

[27] Duncan & Murnane (2011).

[28] Phillips, D. A., Voran, M., Kisker, E., Howes, C., & Whitebook, M. (2008). Child care for children in poverty: Opportunity or inequity? Child Development, 65, 472-492.

[29] Waldfogel, J., & Washbrook, E. (2011). Income-related gaps in school readiness in the United States and United Kingdom. In T. Smeeding, R. Erikson, and M. Jantti (Eds.), Persistence, Privilege, and Parenting: The Comparative Study of Intergenerational Mobility. New York: Russell Sage.

[30] Magnuson (2007).; Waldfogel (2013).

[31] Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experiences of Young American Children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

[32] Magnuson (2007).; Waldfogel (2013).

[33] Barnett, W. S. (2010). Universal and targeted approaches to preschool education in the United States. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 4, 1-12.

[34] Magnuson, Waldfogel, & Washbrook (2012).

[35] Leak, J., Duncan, G. J., Li, W., Magnuson, K., Schindler, H. S., Yoshikawa, H., & Shonkoff, J. P. (In Review). Timing in early childhood education: How cognitive and achievement program impacts vary by starting age, program duration, and time since the end of the program. National Forum on Early Childhood Policy and Programs.

[36] Camilli, G., Vargas, S., Ryan, S., & Barnett, W. S. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. Teachers College Record, 112, 579-620.; Morrissey, T., Hutchison, L., & Burgess, K., with Deming, D., & Gormley, W. (2014). The short- and long-term impacts of large public early care and education programs. ASPE Issue Brief.

[37] Currie, J., & Thomas, D. (1995). Does Head Start make a difference? The American Economic Review, 85(3), 341-364. Hale, B., Seitz, V., & Zigler, E. (1990). Health services and Head Start: A forgotten formula. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 11(4), 447-458. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). Head Start Impact Study: First Year Findings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

[38] Waldfogel (2013).

[39] Gormley, W., Gayer, T., Phillips, D., & Dawson, B. (2005). The Effects of Universal Pre-K on Cognitive Development. Developmental Psychology, 41, 872-884.; Gormley, W., Phillips, D., & Gayer, T. (2008). Preschool programs can boost school readiness. Science, 320, 1723-1724.; Hustedt, J., Barnett, W. S., Jung, K., & Figueras, A. (2008). Impacts of New Mexico PreK on Children's School Readiness at Kindergarten Entry: Results from the Second Year of a Growing Initiative. National Institute for Early Education Research, Rutgers University. Retrieved from: NewMexicoRDD0608.pdf.; Weiland, C., & Yoshikawa, H. (2013). Impacts of a prekindergarten program on children's mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and emotional skills. Child Development, 84, 2112-2130.; Yoshikawa, H., Weiland, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Burchinal, M. R., Espinosa, L. M., Gormley, W. T., - Zaslow, M. J. (2013). Investing in our Future: The Evidence Base for Preschool Education. A Joint Brief from the Foundation for Child Development and the Society for Research in Child Development.

[40] Magnuson, K., & Waldfogel, J. (2005). Child care, early education, and racial/ethnic test score gaps at the beginning of school. The Future of Children, 15, 169-196.

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