The Early Achievement and Development Gap. How do multiple risk factors contribute to achievement and developmental gaps?


There is evidence that multiple risk factors are associated with widening gaps in cognitive skills during infancy and toddlerhood, suggesting a cumulative association. For instance, a cognitive skills gap does not appear to exist between children experiencing only low family income (below 200 percent FPL) as a risk factor compared to children experiencing low family income and one additional risk factor (racial/ethnic minority, a home language other than English, or a low level of maternal education). However, low-income children with two or three additional risk factors do appear to be substantially behind low-income only children (.6 and .9 of a SD, respectively).[21]

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"rb_AchievementGap.pdf" (pdf, 166.28Kb)

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