The Early Achievement and Development Gap. How do multiple risk factors contribute to achievement and developmental gaps?

03/26/2014

There is evidence that multiple risk factors are associated with widening gaps in cognitive skills during infancy and toddlerhood, suggesting a cumulative association. For instance, a cognitive skills gap does not appear to exist between children experiencing only low family income (below 200 percent FPL) as a risk factor compared to children experiencing low family income and one additional risk factor (racial/ethnic minority, a home language other than English, or a low level of maternal education). However, low-income children with two or three additional risk factors do appear to be substantially behind low-income only children (.6 and .9 of a SD, respectively).[21]

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