1. A pre-PRWORA implementation survey of county welfare directors in California, for example, found that nearly all directors (97%) ranked the impact of TANF on child abuse and neglect as "very important," and a vast majority ranked as important the effect of TANF on the child welfare and foster care system in general (Brady & Snow, 1997).
2. When we report findings prior to welfare reform, we refer to the program as AFDC. When we discuss changes that may arise given welfare reform, we refer to the program as TANF.
3. Our study is in contrast to the TANF exiter evaluations that are currently being conducted by many states. In these studies, a case is being chosen if an adult exited the TANF program in a particular month. In these studies, it is often unclear as to what happened to the program participation of the child.
4. For this study, we did not have access to zip code level address information from all states.
5. It was not feasible to include Food Stamps and WIC in this study because of the lack of availability of the data across the three states.
6. We note that one aspect of the law that is important for our study is that if families did not receive AFDC/TANF for at least three of the six months prior to receiving a job, they are not eligible for TMA.
7. The importance and use of noncash benefits among AFDC leavers has been documented in previous work. In Illinois, for example, over 50 percent of all AFDC leavers continued to claim Medicaid or food stamps on exit (Reidy et al 1998)
8. We note that one aspect of the law that is important for our study is that if families did not receive AFDC/TANF for at least three of the six months prior to receiving a job, they are not eligible for TMA.
9. It should be noted that nearly all children who are part of an AFDC grant are also Medicaid eligible. Exceptions exist when a working parent already has private health insurance and does not provide information on that health insurance to the welfare agency.
10. In California, children will continue to receive cash benefits after their parents reach time limits.
11. A group of researchers led by IRP and the Research Forum are currently preparing a volume on how to do research on the implementation of welfare reform.