Dynamics of Children's Movement Among the AFDC, Medicaid, and Foster Care Programs Prior to Welfare Reform: 1995–1996. Appendix of Tables

03/31/2000

Table 1.
Comparison of Welfare Reform Policies in Three States.
  California Illinois North Carolina
Eligibility Rules and Time Limits for Two-Parent, Non-Disabled Families
100-hour rule 1        
30-day waiting period X(1)        
Work history rule          
6 out of 12 month time-limit          
State Time Limits, Exemptions,and Extensions(2)
Time Limit 60 months One-time:
24 months; re-eligible after 24 months
Lifetime:
60 months
One-time:
24 out of 60 months
Lifetime:
60 months
Benefit Termination or Reduction Reduction(3) Termination Termination Termination Termination
Exemption due to: Not specified
 – Age X     X  
 – Disability/Illness X X   X  
 – Caring for disabled person X X   X  
 – Caring for young child (age)   X
(13 years)
  X
(5 years)(4)
 
 – General hardship or other personal barriers to employment X        
 – No job available/high local unemployment          
 – Victim of domestic abuse 7        
 – Other     8   9
Extensions:
 – Criteria for extension No extensions Participation in a "pay after performance" work program   Compliance with personal responsibility contract, or non-compliance with good cause, but unable to find work No extensions
 – Length of extension   Not specified   "Month-to-month" extensions  
Time Limit Implementation Dates
  1/98 One-time:
2/96
Lifetime:
7/97
One-time:
7/96
Lifetime:
1/97

 

Table 1. (Continued)
Comparison of Welfare Reform Policies in Three States.
  California Illinois North Carolina
Work Requirement Exemption Based on Age of Youngest Child(5)
Exempt while child under age: 6 months(6) 1 year 1 year
Limited to 12 total months      
Sanction Policies for Noncompliance with Work Activities Requirements
Initial Sanction:(7)
 – Amount of Sanction (Partial or Full Benefit Reduction) Partial Partial Partial
 – Minimum Length of Sanction (No. of months)(8) Until compliance Until compliance 3 months
Most Severe Sanction:(9)
 – Amount of Sanction (Partial or Full Benefit Reduction) Partial Full Partial
 – Minimum Length of Sanction (No. of months)(8) 6 months 3 months 12 months
States Requiring Non-Exempt Recipients to Engage in Employment or Unpaid Work Experience
When is work required? 18 months(10)    
What is required? Unsubsidized employment or community service    
Monthly Benefit for a Single Parent with Two Children and No Income
1997 TANF benefit $565(11), (12) $377(12) $272
1996 AFDC benefit $596(12) $377(12) $272
Change in benefit Reduction of $29 No change No change
Earnings Disregard Policies for TANF Recipients
  Disregard $225 and 50% of the remainder Disregard 67% Disregard $120 and 1/3 of remainder for the first 4 months of earnings; $120 for the next eight months (months 5-12); $90 after 12 months
States with Family Cap Provisions
No increase in assistance for additional children X X X
Partial increase in cash assistance for additional children      
Increase in assistance for additional child provided as voucher      
Increase in cash assistance for additional child provided to third party      
Amount of Child Support Pass-through
  $50 $50 State discontinued child support pass-through
Detailed Sanction Rules for Noncompliance with Work Requirements
       

Source: Urban Institute summary of state TANF decisions as of October 1997. Child Support Pass-through information also comes from the Office of Child Support Enforcement, "Child Support Report," December, 1997.

 

Table 1. (Continued)
Comparison of Welfare Reform Policies in Three States.
Detailed Sanction Rules for Noncompliance with Work Requirements without Good Cause
(Length of each sanction is the number of months stated or until compliance, whichever is longer)
California
First instance of noncompliance Removal of adult from benefit.
Second instance of noncompliance Removal of adult from benefit for 3 months.
Subsequent instances of noncompliance Removal of adult from benefit for 6 months.
(If a parent or caretaker has been subject to a sanction for over 3 months, the county must issue vouchers or vendor payments for at least rent and utilities, until parent is no longer sanctioned.)
Illinois
First instance of noncompliance 50% reduction in benefit. If noncompliance continues for 3 months, termination of benefit.
Second instance of noncompliance 50 % reduction in benefits for 3 months. If noncompliance continues for 3 months, termination of benefits.
Subsequent instances of noncompliance Termination of benefits for 3 months.
North Carolina
First instance of noncompliance $50 reduction in benefits for 3 months.
Second instance of noncompliance $75 reduction in benefits for 3 months.
Third instance of noncompliance $75 reduction in benefits for 6 months.
Subsequent instances of noncompliance $75 reduction in benefits for 12 months.

 


Footnotes

1.  California: The 30-day waiting period has been modified to a four week waiting period.

2.  This table does not list exemptions that are required in all states under PRWORA, namely: 1) families that do not contain an adult receiving assistance; 2) months of assistance received by an adult as a minor child not the head of household or married to the head of household; and 3) any month in which the family lived on an Indian reservation or Alaskan native village with unemployment above 50%. This table also does not list exemption policies related to teen parents or families of non-parent caretaker relatives.

3.  After family reaches the time limit, the adult portion of the benefit is eliminated but cash assistance is continued for the children in the unit.

4.  Counties have the option to exempt victims of domestic violence.

5.  Information in the table is for adult single parents receiving TANF. Special provisions regarding two-parent families and teen custodial parents are not included. The ages listed are for full exemptions. States may also have partial exemptions for parents of young children that require fewer hours of work.

6.  Counties have the flexibility to lengthen the exemption age to 12 months or shorten it to 12 weeks. Parents are exempt while the youngest child is under 12 weeks old for all subsequent children.

7.  For comparison purposes, the initial sanction refers to the sanction a TANF recipient would receive if the recipient is noncompliant with work requirements for the first time and subsequently complies with the work requirement at the earliest possible time.

8.  The length of each sanction, unless otherwise specified, is the number of months stated or until the sanctioned recipient complies with the work requirements, whichever is longer.

9.  The most severe sanction may go into effect after a subsequent instance of non-compliance or as a result of continual non-compliance after a specified length of time, depending on the state.

10.  The 18 month limit is for applicants who apply on or after 1/1/98. Families receiving assistance before 1/1/98 have a 24 month limit.

11.  Amount shown is for non-exempt families.

12.  Benefit varies by county or city within the state. The amount shown is the benefit level for the area containing the largest portion of the state population.

 

Competing Risk Cox Regression Model Estimates:

Table IL1:
Competing Risk Cox Regression Model Estimates:
Illinois
Variables Parameter Estimate S.E. p value risk ratio Comparison of
Coefficients: t value
AFDC-FC Transition FC vs. No Services
Age
Infant 1.39 0.24 0.00* 4.03 10.12*
Age 1-4 0.80 0.25 0.00* 2.22 4.87*
Age 5-9 0.35 0.26 0.19 1.42 3.20*
Age 10-14 0.68 0.26 0.01* 1.97 4.60*
Age 15-17       1.00  
Gender
Female -0.01 0.05 0.87 0.99 -0.48
Male       1.00  
County Poverty
Less than 10%       1.00  
10-20% in pov -0.07 0.12 0.56 0.93 -0.43
20-30% in pov -0.12 0.11 0.25 0.89 0.28
>30% in pov -1.97 1.01 0.05 0.14 -1.85
Race/Ethnicity
White       1.00  
Black 0.49 0.07 0.00* 1.63 10.76*
Hispanic -0.73 0.13 0.00* 0.48 -5.55*
Other 0.40 0.20 0.04* 1.49 3.07*
 
AFDC-Medicaid Transition Med vs. No Services
Age
Infant -0.55 0.03 0.00* 0.58 12.10*
Age 1-4 -0.28 0.04 0.00* 0.76 3.85*
Age 5-9 -0.19 0.04 0.00* 0.83 7.06*
Age 10-14 -0.09 0.04 0.03* 0.92 9.84*
Age 15-17       1.00  
Gender
Female -0.03 0.02 0.05 0.97 -2.56*
Male       1.00  
County Poverty
Less than 10%       1.00  
10-20% in pov 0.01 0.03 0.75 1.01 0.76
20-30% in pov -0.66 0.03 0.00* 0.52 -16.27*
>30% in pov -0.97 0.16 0.00* 0.38 -4.85*
Race/Ethnicity
White       1.00  
Black -0.61 0.02 0.00* 0.54 -16.54*
Hispanic -0.28 0.03 0.00* 0.75 -8.89*
Other -0.53 0.06 0.00* 0.59 -4.14*
 
AFDC-No service Transition  
Age
Infant -1.02 0.02 0.00* 0.36  
Age 1-4 -0.44 0.02 0.00* 0.64  
Age 5-9 -0.50 0.02 0.00* 0.61  
Age 10-14 -0.54 0.02 0.00* 0.58  
Age 15-17       1.00  
Gender
Female 0.02 0.01 0.10 1.02  
Male       1.00  
County Poverty
Less than 10%       1.00  
10-20% in pov -0.02 0.02 0.39 0.98  
20-30% in pov -0.15 0.02 0.00* 0.86  
>30% in pov -0.10 0.08 0.20 0.91  
Race/Ethnicity
White       1.00  
Black -0.24 0.01 0.00* 0.79  
Hispanic -0.02 0.02 0.19 0.98  
Other -0.22 0.04 0.00* 0.80  
Note:  Baseline levels are indicated as risk ratio of 1.
*  Estimates are statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

 

Table CA1:
Competing Risk Cox Regression Model Estimates:
California
Variables Parameter Estimate S. E. p-value risk ratio Comparison of
Coefficients: t value
AFDC-FC Transition FC vs. No Services
Age
Infant 1.11 0.14 0.00* 3.02 18.88*
Age 1-4 0.55 0.14 0.00* 1.73 10.38*
Age 5-9 0.29 0.15 0.05 1.33 8.24*
Age 10-14 0.31 0.15 0.05 1.36 8.23*
Age 15-17       1.00  
Gender
Female 0.01 0.03 0.71 1.01 -0.29
Male       1.00  
County Poverty
Less than 10%       1.00  
10-20% in pov -0.12 0.04 0.00* 0.88 -11.04*
20-30% in pov -0.12 0.06 0.04* 0.89 -8.74*
>30% in pov 3.01 0.58 0.00* 20.39 2.56*
Race/Ethnicity
White       1.00  
Black -0.27 0.04 0.00* 0.76 0.17
Hispanic -1.07 0.04 0.00* 0.34 -19.56*
Other -1.50 0.10 0.00* 0.22 -10.03*
 
AFDC-Medicaid Transition Med vs. No Services
Age
Infant -0.63 0.01 0.00* 0.53 47.78*
Age 1-4 -0.32 0.01 0.00* 0.72 31.87*
Age 5-9 -0.19 0.02 0.00* 0.83 37.68*
Age 10-14 -0.17 0.02 0.00* 0.84 37.02*
Age 15-17       1.00  
Gender
Female -0.01 0.01 0.02* 0.99 -4.11*
Male       1.00  
County Poverty
Less than 10%       1.00  
10-20% in pov 0.37 0.01 0.00* 1.45 5.66*
20-30% in pov 0.44 0.01 0.00* 1.55 3.67*
>30% in pov 0.02 0.41 0.97 1.02 -3.07*
Race/Ethnicity
White       1.00  
Black -0.20 0.01 0.00* 0.82 5.38*
Hispanic -0.12 0.01 0.00* 0.89 7.31*
Other -0.42 0.01 0.00* 0.66 6.10*
 
AFDC-No service Transition  
Age
Infant -1.48 0.01 0.00 0.23  
Age 1-4 -0.94 0.01 0.00 0.39  
Age 5-9 -0.94 0.01 0.00 0.39  
Age 10-14 -0.96 0.01 0.00 0.38  
Age 15-17       1.00  
Gender
Female 0.02 0.01 0.00 1.02  
Male       1.00  
County Poverty
Less than 10%       1.00  
10-20% in pov 0.31 0.01 0.00 1.36  
20-30% in pov 0.39 0.01 0.00 1.47  
>30% in pov 1.43 0.21 0.00 4.18  
Race/Ethnicity
White       1.00  
Black -0.28 0.01 0.00 0.76  
Hispanic -0.20 0.01 0.00 0.82  
Other -0.53 0.01 0.00 0.59  
Note: Baseline levels are indicated as risk ratio of 1.
Estimates are statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

 

Table NC1:
Competing Risk Cox Regression Model Estimates:
North Carolina

Variables Parameter Estimate S. E. p-value risk ratio Comparison of
Coefficients: t value
AFDC-FC Transition FC vs. No Services
Age
Infant 1.14 0.27 0.00* 3.14 9.36*
Age 1-4 0.63 0.29 0.03* 1.87 3.38*
Age 5-9 0.51 0.29 0.08* 1.67 3.01*
Age 10-14 0.43 0.30 0.15* 1.54 2.66*
Age 15-17       1.00  
Gender
Female -0.21 0.08 0.01* 0.81 -2.28*
Male       1.00  
County Poverty
Less than 10%       1.00  
10-20% in pov -0.08 0.11 0.48 0.92 -1.08
20-30% in pov -0.03 0.13 0.82 0.97 -0.47
>30% in pov -0.02 0.37 0.96 0.98 0.10
Race/Ethnicity
White       1.00  
Black -0.29 0.09 0.00* 0.75 1.05
Hispanic -1.14 0.34 0.00* 0.32 -3.56*
Other -0.03 0.17 0.87 0.97 1.77
 
AFDC-Medicaid Transition Med vs. No Services
Age
Infant 0.21 0.04 0.00* 1.23 36.77*
Age 1-4 0.06 0.04 0.17* 1.06 8.85*
Age 5-9 0.13 0.04 0.00* 1.14 10.65*
Age 10-14 0.13 0.04 0.00* 1.14 10.38*
Age 15-17       1.00  
Gender
Female -0.00 0.02 0.77 1.00 0.92
Male       1.00  
County Poverty
Less than 10%       1.00  
10-20% in pov 0.18 0.02 0.00* 1.20 4.88*
20-30% in pov 0.12 0.03 0.00* 1.13 2.63*
>30% in pov 0.32 0.07 0.00* 1.38 4.12*
Race/Ethnicity
White       1.00  
Black -0.38 0.02 0.00* 0.68 -0.12
Hispanic -0.24 0.04 0.00* 0.78 -6.67*
Other 0.09 0.03 0.00* 1.10 9.66*
 
AFDC-No service Transition  
Age
Infant -1.42 0.02 0.00* 0.24  
Age 1-4 -0.36 0.02 0.00* 0.70  
Age 5-9 -0.36 0.02 0.00* 0.70  
Age 10-14 -0.37 0.02 0.00* 0.69  
Age 15-17       1.00  
Gender
Female -0.02 0.01 0.08 0.98  
Male       1.00  
County Poverty
Less than 10%       1.00  
10-20% in pov 0.04 0.02 0.02* 1.04  
20-30% in pov 0.03 0.02 0.14 1.03  
>30% in pov -0.06 0.06 0.37 0.95  
Race/Ethnicity
White       1.00  
Black -0.38 0.01 0.00* 0.68  
Hispanic 0.08 0.03 0.00* 1.09  
Other -0.33 0.03 0.00* 0.72  
Note: Baseline levels are indicated as risk ratio of 1.
* Estimates are statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

 

  Figure IL2: Smoothed Hazard Function for Three Transition Types from AFDC for the Method 1 Population-Illinois.

  Figure IL3: Estimated Survival Function for Time from AFDC to Foster Care, Medicaid, or No Service for the Method 1 Population-Illinois.

  Figure IL4: Estimated Survivial Function for Time from AFDC to Kinship or Non-Kinship Foster Care for the Method 1 Population-Illinois.

  Figure IL5: Smoothed Hazard Function for Two Transition Types from AFDC for the Method 1 Population-Illinois.

  Figure IL6: Smoothed Hazard Function for Three Transition Types from Medicaid for the Method 1 Population-Illinois.

  Figure IL7: Estimated Survival Function for Time from Medicaid to Foster Care, AFDC, or No Service for the Method 1 Population-Illinois.

  Figure IL8: Estimted Survival Function for Time from Foster Care to AFDC, MEdicaid, or No Service for the Method 1 Population-Illinois.

  Figure CA2: Smoothed Hazard Function for Three Transition Types from AFDC for the Method 1 Population-California.

  Figure CA3: Estimated Survival Function for Time from AFDC to Foster Care, Medicaid, or No Service for the Method 1 Population-California.

  Figure CA4: Estimated Survivial Function for Time from AFDC to Kinship or Non-Kinship Foster Care for the Method 1 Population-California.

  Figure CA5: Smoothed Hazard Function for Two Transition Types from AFDC for the Method 1 Population-California.

  Figure CA6: Smoothed Hazard Function for Three Transition Types from Medicaid for the Method 1 Population-California.

  Figure CA7: Estimated Survival Function for Time from Medicaid to Foster Care, AFDC, or No Service for the Method 1 Population-California.

  Figure CA8: Estimted Survival Function for Time from Foster Care to AFDC, MEdicaid, or No Service for the Method 1 Population-California.

  Figure NC2: Smoothed Hazard Function for Three Transition Types from AFDC for the Method 1 Population-North Carolina.

  Figure NC3: Estimated Survival Function for Time from AFDC to Foster Care, Medicaid, or No Service for the Method 1 Population-North Carolina.

  Figure NC4: Estimated Survivial Function for Time from AFDC to Kinship or Non-Kinship Foster Care for the Method 1 Population-North Carolina.

  Figure NC5: Smoothed Hazard Function for Two Transition Types from AFDC for the Method 1 Population-North Carolina.

  Figure NC6: Smoothed Hazard Function for Three Transition Types from Medicaid for the Method 1 Population-North Carolina.

  Figure NC7: Estimated Survival Function for Time from Medicaid to Foster Care, AFDC, or No Service for the Method 1 Population-North Carolina.

  Figure NC8: Estimted Survival Function for Time from Foster Care to AFDC, MEdicaid, or No Service for the Method 1 Population-North Carolina.