Do Mandatory Welfare-to-Work Programs Affect the Well-Being of Children?. Overview of Findings

No aspects of the 11 welfare-to-work programs studied as part of the NEWWS Evaluation were targeted directly to children. Theoretically, however, the programs could affect children through their effects on the parents required to participate in them, as described in the conceptual model presented below. Program effects on parents' education levels, welfare status, employment, earnings, and income could potentially result in changes in family routines, parents' self-esteem or stress, or parents' supervision of children or use of child care arrangements. Thus, as a first step, it is necessary to examine how the programs were implemented and their impacts on adults.