Determinants of AFDC Caseload Growth. 3. Other Program Factors


Many states have obtained and implemented waivers to federal rules under Section 1115 of the Social Security Act ("1115 Waivers") during the period under investigation, especially during the last few years, and some were expected to have an impact on program participation. Based on descriptions of all waivers granted during this period provided by ACF, we created a series of indicators for the following features of these waivers: reduction or elimination of AFDC benefits for children born or conceived while the family is receiving AFDC ("family cap"); requirements for participation in work, education, or training activities;(8) extension of transitional Medicaid benefits; elimination of the 100-hour work limitation rule for UP families; and elimination of the work history requirement for UP families.

Many states also enacted laws during the period under investigation that may have had an impact on AFDC caseloads and expenditures. New laws in the areas of paternal identification, child support enforcement, and restrictions on abortion and Medicaid funding of abortions may have affected participation and expenditures through their effects on fertility and family income, in addition to their direct effects on participation.