Designing Program Workshops for Teenage Parents: Lessons from the Teenage Parent Demonstration. Endnotes


1.  Project Advance completed intake for the research sample in September 1989, and Teen Progress in March 1990.  All three sites, however, continued beyond those dates to enroll new participants (who will not be included in the formal impact analysis research), in order to maintain the program environment affecting the research sample.  In all three sites, the demonstration programs have been absorbed, under various strategies and resource constraints, into the regular JOBS program.

2.  The first paper dealt with identifying and enrolling teenage parents in mandatory employment and training programs.  Other papers in this series present findings concerning case management and education and training activities.

3.  The intake session for the demonstration entailed completing a "baseline questionnaire" and taking the Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE).

4.  In some instances an initial plan was developed before participants attended workshops, but in most such cases the plan simply laid out the schedule of workshops the participant was required to attend.  Later a longer-term plan was developed.

5.  The topics listed here correspond generally to the specific titles that the sites assigned to workshops.  Some topics were the subject of a distinct workshop in one site but may have been a subject included in a more broadly defined workshop in another site.  Not all sites offered initial workshops on all of these topics, but each site covered these topics either in an initial workshop or a later ongoing workshop for selected participants.  Some changes in the list of workshops offered were made during the course of the demonstration.

6.  Towards the end of the demonstration, a member of the program staff was designated to conduct some workshops previously run by outside consultants, to reduce costs and maintain closer control over workshop quality.

7.  The Newark program also offered an intensive six-week ongoing workshop in Parenting Skills for participants identified as at high risk of child abuse or neglect.  This workshop was discontinued because of its high cost and the difficulty of developing a suitable curriculum for small groups.

8.  Although the sites' workshop attendance rates could be affected to some degree by differences in the client population, the differences in the demands posed by the workshops appear to be the most important factor.

9.  The Chicago program did, in fact, provide an extensive series of training sessions for case managers -- to prepare them to lead workshops as well as to work individually with the teenage parents in their caseloads.  This training is described in another paper in this series (Hershey, 1991).

10.  A general discussion of the role of sanctions in case management is presented in another paper in this series by Hershey (1991).

11.  We estimated that for each cycle of workshops, a case manager spent nine hours leading workshops and an additional six hours preparing for the workshops and maintaining attendance and other records.

12.  The three demonstration programs also used smaller amounts of workshop resources for ongoing participants.  In Newark, where substantial costs were incurred for an intensive parenting workshop for selected participants, total workshop costs were 10 percent of total program costs.  In Camden, the pre-employment workshop for ongoing participants raised total workshop costs to 12 percent of program costs.  In Chicago, although numerous workshops were held for ongoing participants, they were not scheduled with great frequency and were brief; even including these sessions, total workshop cost remained less than one percent of overall program cost.

13.  Costs in Camden were particularly high because contract costs for the intensive workshop series were spread over a very small flow of new enrollees.  The Camden program's workshop resources would most likely suffice for a program scale comparable to that achieved in Chicago.  At that scale, the workshops approach used in Camden would have consumed resources valued at about $135 per enrollee.