A Descriptive Analysis of the U.S. Department of Labor's Long-Term Care Registered Apprenticeship Programs. 3.1. Apprentice-Level Analyses

07/01/2010

Apprentice-level analyses in Tables 1-5 include descriptive results on 3,744 apprentices in the RAPIDS database describing demographic characteristics, enrollment status, and apprenticeship characteristics.

Highlights of Apprentice-Level Findings

  • More than half of apprentices are older than might be expected for an initial training program (age 30 and over). They are usually female and are more racially diverse than the general population. Most apprentices are high school graduates or have a general equivalency degree (GED).
  • Apprenticeships last about a year, including about 200 hours of formal related instruction, which is largely provided by employers.
  • Approximately 72% of apprenticeships are in competency-based or hybrid apprenticeships (rather than time-based apprenticeships).
  • 1,445 of the 3,744 apprentices (39%) during the last 5 years are currently participating (registered) in a training program. The proportion of apprentices who have completed a training program in the last 5 years is 27%.
  • CNAs have the highest proportion of completed trainings (34%), followed by DSSs (33%).
  • HHAs have the highest proportion of cancellations (62%).
    CNAs comprise 45% of all apprentices, DSSs -- 29%, HSSs -- 15%, and HHAs -- 11%.
  • Advanced or specialty training is available for two of the four major occupations in these data (CNAs and HHAs). About 32% of apprentices (391) in competency-based apprenticeships have participated in advanced or specialty training when available.

The sample derived from the RAPIDS data extract included 3,744 apprentices representing four broad occupational groups. There are 1,695 (45% of the sample) CNAs employed mostly in nursing homes, 1,087 (29%) DSSs employed in group homes/facilities providing housing and supportive services to persons with intellectual disabilities, 567 (15%) HSSs employed in assisted living facilities, and 395 (11%) HHAs employed in home health or hospice agencies.

Table 1 presents the overall distribution of apprentices on selected characteristics and also across the four major occupations. Overall, a majority of apprentices are more than 30 years old. The age distribution varies by major occupational group, with CNAs being younger than DSSs and HSSs. CNAs have the highest proportion of those under the age of 20, with 21% of CNAs under age 20 compared to only between 5% and 9% of apprentices in the other major occupations. Of all occupations, CNAs also have the lowest proportion of those aged 50+ (9%). In comparison, 27% of DSSs and 18% of HSSs are aged 50 and over. In terms of age distribution, HHAs resemble CNAs with 47% under the age of 24 and 9% aged 50 and over.

As expected, most of the apprentices are female. Overall, only 14% of apprentices are males. The proportion of females is similar across occupations.

TABLE 1. Characteristics of Long-Term Care Apprentices by Occupational Group
Characteristics N   Overall   Major Occupational Group: CNA
(824)
Major Occupational Group: DSS
(1040)
Major Occupational Group: HSS
(1086AA)
Major Occupational Group: HHA
(1086)
Number of Apprentices --- 3744 1694 1087 567 395
Age (%)   3,744   --- --- --- --- ---
   Under 20 --- 13.0 21.1 5.4 6.5 8.9
   20–24 --- 21.2 21.7 15.1 19.8 38.0
   25–29 --- 12.1 12.2 9.4 13.8 16.5
   30–39 --- 20.3 20.8 21.4 20.6 13.9
   40–49 --- 18.0 15.2 21.9 21.7 13.7
   50+ --- 15.5 9.0 26.8 17.6 9.1
Female (%) 3,744 85.7 88.5 79.3 89.4 86.1
Race(%) 3,744 --- --- --- --- ---
   White --- 70.4 54.6 89.2 79.4 72.9
   African-American --- 18.1 28.0 5.9 7.9 23.5
   Hispanic --- 8.0 13.8 1.8 7.1 1.8
   Unknown Race --- 3.6 3.6 3.0 5.6 1.8
Education(%) 3,631 --- --- --- --- ---
   Up to 11 years of schooling --- 9.7 17.6 0.7 6.0 4.6
   GED --- 12.7 21.9 1.7 8.5 8.1
   High School Graduate --- 72.9 53.3 95.3 82.7 85.1
   Some Post-Secondary Education --- 4.7 7.2 2.4 2.9 2.3
Enrollment Status (Last Event Code)(%)   3,740 --- --- --- --- ---
   Registered --- 38.6 33.5 33.5 73.2 25.1
   Completed --- 27.3 34.3 33.4 4.4 13.2
   Cancelled --- 34.0 32.2 33.1 22.4 61.5
   Suspended --- 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3
Term Length (hours) 3,744 2,200 1,345 2,638 4,139 1,874
Related Instruction Length (hours) 3,464 198 112 239 398 125
Related Instruction by Sponsor (%) 3,744 72.7 71.3 92.1 23.6 96.0
SOURCE: RTI International/Urban Institute analysis of RAPIDS data.
NOTES: Registration after 1/1/2005, most recent training.

Apprentice programs recruit a relatively diverse group of people: 70% are White, 18% are African-American, 8% are Hispanic and 4% are identified as other race. There is substantial variation in diversity across occupations: CNAs are the most diverse group of apprentices (28% of CNAs are African-American and 14% are Hispanic, followed by HHAs, who are 24% African-American and 2% Hispanic). In contrast, DSSs and HSSs are the least diverse occupations -- 89% and 79% respectively are White.

Regarding educational background, apprentices rarely have a college education and high proportions of some occupations did not complete high school. Overall, most apprentices (86%) are high school graduates or have a GED and almost 5% have some post-secondary education. About 10% have up to 11 years of schooling but have not completed high school or received a GED. Again, some differences are apparent across major occupations. Only 75% of CNAs have either completed high school or a GED. In contrast, over 90% of the other three major occupations completed high school or a GED, with the highest proportion among DSSs (97%).

We compared the findings on demographic characteristics of CNA and HHA apprentices with findings from two national surveys, the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey and the 2007 National Home Health Aide Survey to understand how representative apprentices are of the national population of these workers (Exhibit 7). First, compared to CNAs working in nursing homes nationally, CNAs in apprenticeships are younger (50% of CNA apprentices are under the age of 30 compared to 30% of CNAs nationally). There are slightly more male apprentices than among all CNAs (11.5% versus 8%). CNA apprenticeship programs attract a higher proportion of Latinos (15% in programs versus 9% nationally) but fewer African-Americans (31% in programs versus 39% nationally). CNA apprentices have lower educational attainment compared to CNAs nationally: almost 93% of CNA apprentices have a high school or less than a high school education, compared to 75% of CNAs nationally.

Similar patterns hold for HHAs. HHA apprentices on average are younger than HHAs working in home health and hospice agencies across the country: 45% of HHA apprentices are under the age of 30 compared to only 13% of HHAs nationally. Almost twice as many males are apprentices (12% versus 5%). However, it appears that HHA apprenticeship programs enroll fewer minorities: 5% of HHA apprentices are Hispanic and 15% are African-Americans compared to 8% of Hispanics and 35% of African-Americans nationally. Similar to CNA apprentices, HHA apprentices are less educated than HHAs in general: virtually all (97%) of HHA apprentices have high school education or less, compared to 60% of HHAs nationwide.

The apprenticeship enrollment status categories presented in Table 1 are registered, completed, cancelled and suspended. An apprenticeship may be cancelled if an apprentice elects not to complete training, or if their employer cancels their participation for some reason. An apprentice may be granted a suspension if their apprenticeship is interrupted for some reason, but they still plan on returning to complete it at a later date.

Apprenticeship enrollment status pertains to the latest status recorded for the specific training in which each person was registered. For example, CNAs may be in entry-level training, advanced training, or one of the four “specialty” trainings in which one may enroll after completing advanced training. Therefore, an enrollment status of “registered” for a given CNA in advanced training means they have already completed entry-level training and are registered for advanced training. Each apprentice appears only once in the data, meaning that their completion status for prior trainings is not shown in the table -- only the status for the training in which they most recently enrolled appears. The proportion of trainings completed would have been only slightly higher had we analyzed the data at the training-level rather than the apprentice-level because relatively few apprentices are in trainings beyond entry-level training.

EXHIBIT 7. Demographic Characteristics of Apprentices Compared to National Estimates (percent)
Characteristics CNA Apprentices CNAs Nationally HHA Apprentices HHAs Nationally
Age
   Under 30 49.7 29.8 45.4 13.2
   30-44 29.3 35.9 27.4 30.3
   45+ 21.0 34.3 27.1 56.5
Gender
   Male 11.5 8.0 11.9 5.0
   Female 88.5 92.0 88.1 95.0
Race
   White only 68.5 53.4 83.2 53.3
African-American only 30.8 38.7 15.2 34.9
   Other 0.7 7.9 1.6 11.8
   Hispanic or Latino 15.0 9.4 5.0 8.3
Education
   <12 years 17.6 12.9 5.4 7.2
   GED 21.8 17.8 8.3 14.4
   HS graduate 53.2 44.6 83.7 38.2
1–3 years college/trade   0.2 19.8 0.0 34.2
   College/post grad 0.0 4.9 0.0 5.9
   Unknown 7.2 0.0 2.6 0.0
SOURCE: RTI International/Urban Institute analysis of RAPIDS data, the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey, and the 2007 National Home Health Aide Survey.

Of all apprentices enrolled in the database since January 1, 2005, as of December 1, 2009, 39% (1,445 apprentices) were currently registered in a specific training, 27% (1,020 apprentices) had completed a training since 2005, and 34% (1,273 apprentices) had cancelled (e.g., dropped out) their participation since 2005. Only two apprentices had a status of suspended, meaning that they had been granted a leave of absence. The enrollment status results presented are cumulative over time, therefore, the proportions for “completed” and “cancelled” are much higher than results from a cross-sectional snapshot of only calendar year 2009, where 75% of apprentices were registered, 7% had completed their training, and 18% had cancelled their participation.

Again, as with other characteristics, enrollment status varies greatly by major occupation. Among CNAs and DSSs, about 33% of apprentices are currently registered (568 and 364 apprentices respectively). The proportion of registrants is much higher for HSSs at 73% (415 apprentices) in part because of recent DOL grants to expand apprenticeships for this occupation. About 25% (99 apprentices) of HHAs are currently registered. The proportion of completed trainings vastly varies depending on major occupation: CNAs have the highest proportion (34%), followed by DSSs (33%). About 13% of HHAs have completed training, and only 4% of HSSs, again because of recently awarded DOL grants for this occupation that led to new registrants who have not had sufficient time to complete their training as of December 2009. As stated earlier, the proportion of cancellations is high and ranges from 62% for HHAs to 22% among HSSs. The proportion of cancellations for CNAs and DSSs is similar (32% and 33% respectively).

Finally, the RAPIDS data provide information on the training aspects of apprenticeships. Term length comprises both the OJT component and the related instruction for a competency training (e.g., entry-level or a single specialty, as opposed to the length of the whole apprenticeship, which may include several trainings across time), with a mean of 2,200 hours. Term length across competency trainings within occupations is lowest for CNAs (1,345 hours) and highest for the HSSs (4,139). Term length for DSSs was 2,638 hours and 1,874 hours for HHAs.

On average, there are 198 hours of related instruction for each competency training. HSSs have the longest related instruction period per competency training (almost 400 hours). DSSs had an average of 239 hours per competency training. Related instruction for HHAs and CNAs is shorter, 125 and 112 hours per competency training, respectively.

Related instruction may be obtained directly at the employer work site, or offsite (e.g., community college, vocational school). Related instruction by sponsor describes whether the employer provided the related instruction onsite or whether it was obtained at an offsite location (e.g., community college). Overall, 73% of apprentices had their related instruction provided onsite. There are significant differences by occupation: most of the HHAs receive this training onsite (96%), followed by DSSs (92%) and CNAs (71%). Only 23.6% of HSSs receive their related instruction at their sponsor’s location (again, because DOL provided grant funds to these employers to have apprentices receive this training from an external source).

RAPIDS includes data on some very large providers that potentially skew the results, particularly on total workforce size (apprentices plus other employees) and possibly other characteristics examined. Therefore, we re-ran the analyses with four large employers removed. We removed the two largest employers who contribute the largest numbers of apprentices within each of the four occupations (St. John’s Mercy Medical Center, which contributes 644 currently registered CNAs, HSSs, and HHAs, and Developmental Services, Inc. which contributes 924 currently registered DSSs). We also removed the two employers (Gary Job Corps and Women’s East Reception Federal Prison with 396 and 297 CNAs respectively) who contributed the largest numbers of apprentices who were not currently registered (had either completed or cancelled their apprenticeships) so that the data would reflect the most recent composition of registered apprentices.

Removing these four programs changed the results on some characteristics substantially:

  • Apprentices in all occupations were somewhat older, particularly CNAs and DSSs.
  • Substantially more DSSs were female.
  • More CNAs were White and fewer DSSs were White.
  • CNAs were better educated, and there was more variance in the educational status of DSSs instead of clustering around high school graduates.
  • CNAs and DSSs had higher proportions of registered apprentices.
  • DSSs and HSSs had notably higher term lengths and related instruction lengths than the full sample.
  • Fewer apprentices had related instruction provided by the sponsor across all occupation groups.

Tables 2-5 disaggregate the results by whether the apprenticeships are time-based (requiring the apprentice to complete a certain number of hours of work and related instruction) or competency-based (requiring an apprentice to acquire specific competencies through work and related instruction regardless of the apprenticeship length). Approximately 72% of all apprentices across the four major occupations are in competency-based apprenticeship programs.

Further, two of the major occupations (CNAs and HHAs) have competency-based training beyond entry-level, and these “advanced” or “specialty” training programs are grouped together to provide a better understanding of the characteristics of workers who progress beyond entry-level training. About 32% of apprentices (391) in competency-based apprenticeships have participated in advanced or specialty training when available. Detailed information at the apprentice-level on each of the individual advanced or specialty apprenticeship trainings for CNAs and HHAs is provided in Appendix A. Currently, the DSS model does not offer interim credentials or advanced and specialty training, and the HSS model is a hybrid model combining both competency-based and time-based apprenticeships. Although HSSs have specialty trainings, the model does not offer interim credentials so these data did not separately delineate these trainings as such.

Table 2 displays characteristics of apprentices working as CNAs. Among the three categories presented, 416 apprentices are in time-based training (Code 824), 922 apprentices are in entry-level competency-based training (Codes 824C and 824CB), and 356 apprentices are in advanced or specialty trainings. Specialty trainings include a dementia specialty (Code 824D) providing training to care for persons with various levels of dementia, a geriatrics specialty (Code 824G) focusing on care for older nursing home residents, a restorative specialty (Code 824R) focusing on care for persons requiring rehabilitative services after surgery or other similar event, and a mentoring specialty (Code 824M), designed to be completed after one other specialty training has been completed, which provides instruction on how to mentor other apprentices in their job responsibilities. Details on apprentice demographics by individual training can be obtained from Table A-1 in Appendix A.

TABLE 2. Characteristics of Certified Nursing Assistants
Characteristics N   Time-Based  
(824)
  Entry-Level Competency-Based  
(824C & 824CB)
Advanced or Specialty
  (824A, 824R, 824D, 824G & 824M)  
Number of Apprentices --- 416 922 356
Age (%)   1,694   --- --- ---
   Under 20 --- 16.1 30.6 2.3
   20–24 --- 27.9 22.2 12.9
   25–29 --- 16.1 10.1 12.9
   30–39 --- 20.9 20.3 22.2
   40–49 --- 12.5 11.6 27.8
   50+ --- 6.5 5.2 21.9
Female (%) 1,694 88.5 87.0 92.4
Race (%) 1,694 --- --- ---
   White --- 70.9 40.4 72.5
   African-American --- 22.6 33.8 19.1
   Hispanic --- 2.2 22.6 4.8
   Unknown Race --- 4.3 3.3 3.7
Education (%) 1,681 --- --- ---
   Up to 11 years of schooling --- 9.0 25.4 7.6
   GED --- 7.3 31.5 14.1
   High School Graduate --- 60.1 41.4 76.1
   Some Post-Secondary Education --- 23.6 1.8 2.3
Enrollment Status (Last Event Code) (%)   1,691 --- --- ---
   Registered --- 59.8 21.7 33.4
   Completed --- 18.3 43.6 28.9
   Cancelled --- 21.9 34.6 37.6
   Suspended --- 0.0 0.1 0.0
Term Length (hours) 1,694 2,305 1,116 814
Related Instruction Length (hours) 1,440 193 83 83
Related Instruction by Sponsor (%) 1,694 72.8 88.4 25.0
SOURCE: RTI International/Urban Institute analysis of RAPIDS data.
NOTES: Registration after 1/1/2005, most recent training

Compared to advanced or specialty trainings, both time-based and entry-level competency-based trainings enroll younger apprentices: 16% of those in time-based training, and 31% of those in entry-level competency-based training are under the age of 20, compared to only 2% among those in advanced or specialty training. Additionally, 28% of CNAs in time-based training and 22% in entry-level competency-based training are aged 20-24. In comparison, 13% of CNAs in advanced or specialty training belong to this age group. Only 6% of CNAs in time-based training and 5% in entry-level competency-based training are aged 50 and over, and among advanced or specialty trainees this proportion reaches 22%, which might be expected to be higher than entry-level training.

In all CNA trainings, most apprentices are female, but the highest proportion of females is in advanced or specialty trainings (92%). These trainings attract CNAs of different racial composition: 71% of apprentices enrolled in time-based trainings are White, compared to 40% of apprentices in entry-level competency-based training and 72% among those in advanced or specialty trainings. Similarly, entry-level competency-based training attracts the highest proportion of Hispanics -- 23%, which is much higher than 2% for time-based and 5% for advanced or specialty trainings. Seemingly, Hispanics may be more attracted to entry-level competency-based training than time-based training.

In terms of educational attainment, the profiles differ by training type. In time-based and advanced/specialty training, apprentices with 11 years of schooling or less comprise 9% and 8% respectively, while they represent a quarter of apprentices in entry-level competency-based training. On the other hand, 32% of apprentices participating in entry-level competency-based training have a GED and 41% are high school graduates, compared to 7% and 60% among apprentices in time-based training and 14% and 76% of apprentices respectively in advanced/specialty training. Time-based trainings also enroll the highest proportion of those with some post-secondary education (24%).

Regarding enrollment status, almost 60% of apprentices (249) enrolled in time-based training are registered, meaning they were currently participating in training, compared to 22% of apprentices (200) in entry-level competency-based and 33% (118) in advanced or specialty training. Apprentices in entry-level competency-based training exhibit the highest proportion of completed trainings: 44%, followed by those in advanced/specialty trainings (29%), with time-based training last (18%). Almost 22% of CNAs in time-based training are reported as having cancelled their training, followed by 35% among those in entry-level competency-based training and by 38% of those in advanced/specialty training. Only one CNA, in entry-level competency-based training, is reported as having been granted a suspension.

In line with expectations, term length is highest for time-based training with 2,305 hours, followed by 1,116 hours for entry-level competency-based training and 814 hours for advanced/specialty training.

The time-based trainings also have the highest number of hours for related instruction (193), followed by 83 hours for each entry-level competency-based and advanced/specialty training.

Time-based and competency-based trainings are characterized by a high proportion of CNAs receiving related instruction onsite (73% and 88% respectively). Only a quarter of CNAs involved in the advanced/specialty trainings receive such instruction onsite.

Table 3 displays characteristics of apprentices in the DSS occupation, who are apprentices working in facilities providing housing or services to persons with intellectual disabilities in order to promote independence and community inclusion. There are two types of training for DSSs: entry-level time-based (Code 1040), comprising 565 apprentices and entry-level competency-based (Code 1040CB) comprising 522 apprentices. There are no interim credentials or advanced specialties for DSSs, but ANCOR and NADSP are in the process of revising apprenticeship standards to develop them.

TABLE 3. Characteristics of Direct Support Specialists
Characteristics N   Overall     Time-Based  
(1040)
  Competency-Based  
(1040CB)
Number of Apprentices --- 1,087 565 522
Age (%)   1,087   --- --- ---
   Under 20 --- 5.4 3.0 8.1
   20–24 --- 15.1 13.5 16.9
   25–29 --- 9.4 8.5 10.3
   30–39 --- 21.4 20.7 22.2
   40–49 --- 21.9 21.6 22.2
   50+ --- 26.8 32.7 20.3
Female (%) 1,087 79.3 87.7 74.5
Race (%) 1,087 --- --- ---
   White --- 89.2 96.1 81.8
   African-American --- 5.9 2.3 9.8
   Hispanic --- 1.8 1.6 2.1
   Unknown Race --- 3.0 0.0 6.3
Education (%) 1,033 --- --- ---
   Up to 11 years of schooling --- 0.7 0.8 0.6
   GED --- 1.7 0.2 3.2
   High School Graduate --- 95.3 99.1 91.3
   Some Post-Secondary Education --- 2.4 0.0 5.0
Enrollment Status (Last Event Code) (%)   1,086 --- --- ---
   Registered --- 33.5 9.2 59.9
   Completed --- 33.4 55.9 9.0
   Cancelled --- 33.1 34.9 31.1
   Suspended --- 0.0 0.0 0.0
Term Length (hours) 1,087 2,638 2,127 3,190
Related Instruction Length (hours) 1,075 239 226 252
Related Instruction by Sponsor (%) 1,087 92.1 100.0 83.5
SOURCE: RTI International/Urban Institute analysis of RAPIDS data.
NOTES: Registration after 1/1/2005, most recent training

DSSs in time-based training tend to be older: 25% of them are under the age of 30 compared to 35% among those who are enrolled in competency-based training. Similarly, almost 33% of DSSs in time-based training are aged 50 and over, compared to 20% among those who are enrolled in competency-based training. A higher proportion of apprentices in time-based training are female -- (88% versus 75%) and White (96% versus 82%). Respectively, competency-based training has a more diverse group of apprentices: almost 10% are African-American compared to 2% in time-based training.

While time-based training enrolled more apprentices who are high school graduates (99% versus 91%), competency-based training attracted 25 individuals with post-secondary education while time-based training attracted none.

Enrollment status varies substantially by training type among DSSs: only 9% of apprentices (52) in time-based training are currently registered compared to almost 60% (312) among those in competency-based training. Conversely, 56% of apprentices in time-based training have completed the apprenticeship compared to only 9% among those in competency-based training. The proportion of cancellations is similar between the types of training (35% and 31%). It appears that none of the DSSs were granted a suspension.

For these trainings, competency-based trainings involve even more hours (3,190) than time-based programs (2,127 hours). Similarly, the related instruction length is 226 hours for time-based training and 252 hours for competency-based training. All of the related instruction is conducted onsite for time-based training and 84% of teaching is done onsite for competency-based training.

Table 4 provides details for the apprenticeship program in the HSS occupation (1086AA), which is a hybrid model combining competency-based and time-based training. There are no interim credentials offered for this model (as the research was underway, a large national employer developed an interim credentialed model). Although there is only the single occupational code in the data, DOL has developed work process schedules for various roles in which HSSs may participate depending on their assigned role in an assisted living facility or home. These roles include rehabilitative aide, HHA, environmental services aide, dining services aide, certified nursing aide, certified medication aide, and activity director. It is not clear whether HSSs in these data participate in apprenticeships specifically designed for these various roles. There are 567 HSSs employed in these data.

Almost 7% of HSSs are under 20 years old and 20% are 20-24 years old. About 18% are over 50 years old. Most HSSs are female (89%) and 80% are White. About 8% are African-American. Six percent of HSSs have less than 11 years of schooling and almost 9% have a GED. However, the great majority of HSSs have graduated from high school (83%). About 3% have some post-secondary education.

Among all the major occupations, HSSs have the highest proportion (73%) of apprentices currently registered (415). Slightly over 4% have completed training, and 22% have cancelled their enrollment. Term length for this occupation is 4,139 hours, which is much larger than other occupations. The apprenticeship for HSSs involves about 400 hours of related instruction. Only 24% of programs for this training conduct their teaching onsite.

TABLE 4. Characteristics of Health Support Specialists
Characteristics N   1086AA  
Number of Apprentices --- 567
Age (%)   567   ---
   Under 20 --- 6.5
   20-24 --- 19.8
   25-29 --- 13.8
   30-39 --- 20.6
   40-49 --- 21.7
   50+ --- 17.6
Female (%) 567 89.4
Race (%) 567 ---
   White --- 79.4
   African-American --- 7.9
   Hispanic --- 7.1
   Unknown Race --- 5.6
Education (%) 521 ---
   Up to 11 years of schooling --- 60
   GED --- 8.5
   High School Graduate --- 82.7
   Some Post-Secondary Education (%) --- 2.9
Percent by Enrollment Status (Last Event Code) (%)   567 ---
   Registered --- 73.2
   Completed --- 4.4
   Cancelled --- 22.4
   Suspended --- 0.0
Term Length (hours) 567 4,139
Related Instruction Length (hours) 553 398
Related Instruction by Sponsor (%) 567 23.8
SOURCE: RTI International/Urban Institute analysis of RAPIDS data.
NOTES: Registration after 1/1/2005, most recent training

Table 5 provides details on all trainings in the HHA occupation: 71 apprentices are involved in time-based training (Code 1086), 289 apprentices are involved in entry-level competency-based training (Code 1086 CB) and 35 apprentices are involved in various specialty trainings, including disability, hospice and palliative care, dementia, or mentoring (Codes 1068A, 1068B, 1068D and 1068E respectively). Although there are two other specialty trainings for HHAs (mental illness and geriatric occupations), there were no apprentices in the data for them. Data on these specific specialties are presented in Table A-2 in Appendix A.

Age distribution varies by type of HHA training. For example, HHAs in time-based training tend to be older -- none of them are under 20 years of age, with higher proportions concentrated in the top age groups: 15% are aged 30-39, 34% are aged 40-49 and over a quarter are aged 50 and over. In contrast, almost 12% of HHAs in entry-level competency-based training are younger than 20 years old, and 45% of them are between 20 and 24 years old. Less than 4% of HHAs in entry-level competency-based training are aged 50 and over. HHAs enrolled in specialty trainings largely are on the far ends of the age distribution; 38% of them are under the age of 24, 29% are between ages of 40 and 49, and 20% are aged 50 and over.

Time-based training has the highest proportion of females (94%) and minorities (48% African-Americans, 7% Hispanic). In contrast, entry-level competency-based training enrolls 19% African-Americans and less than 1% Hispanics. Eleven percent of HHAs in specialty trainings are African-American.

TABLE 5. Characteristics of Home Health Aides
Characteristics N   Overall     Time-Based  
(1086)
  Entry-Level Competency-Based  
(1086CB)
All Specialty
  (1086A, 1086B, 1086D, & 1086E)  
Number of Apprentices --- 395 71 289 35
Age (%)   395   --- --- --- ---
   Under 20 --- 8.9 0.0 11.8 2.9
   20-24 --- 38.0 12.7 44.6 34.3
   25-29 --- 16.5 12.7 18.3 8.6
   30-39 --- 13.9 15.5 14.5 5.7
   40-49 --- 13.7 33.8 6.9 28.6
   50+ --- 9.1 25.4 3.8 20.0
Female (%) 395 88.1 94.4 85.8 71.4
Race (%) 395 --- --- --- ---
   White --- 72.9 40.9 78.9 88.6
   African-American --- 23.5 47.9 19.0 11.4
   Hispanic --- 1.8 7.0 0.7 0.0
   Unknown Race --- 1.8 4.2 1.4 0.0
Education (%) 395 --- --- --- ---
   Up to 11 years of schooling --- 4.6 16.9 1.7 2.9
   GED --- 8.1 8.5 7.3 14.3
   High School Graduate --- 85.1 74.7 88.6 77.1
   Some Post-Secondary Education --- 2.3 0.0 2.4 5.7
Enrollment Status (Last Event Code) (%)   395 --- --- --- ---
   Registered --- 25.1 14.1 25.3 45.7
   Completed --- 13.2 56.3 2.1 17.1
   Cancelled --- 61.5 28.2 72.7 37.1
   Suspended --- 0.3 1.4 0.0 0.0
Term Length (hours) 395 1,874 1,656 2,000 1,281
Related Instruction Length (hours) 395 125 184 113 106
Related Instruction by Sponsor (%) 395 96.0 100.0 100.0 54.3
SOURCE: RTI International/Urban Institute analysis of RAPIDS data.
NOTES: Registration after 1/1/2005, most recent training

Time-based training also seems to attract the highest proportion of workers with 11 years of schooling or less (17%). In comparison, other HHA trainings attract less than 3% of apprentices with 11 years of schooling or less. None of the apprentices in time-based training have any post-secondary education. Educational attainment is higher for those involved in entry-level competency-based training (2.4% have some post-secondary education) and specialty trainings (6% have some post-secondary education).

In terms of enrollment status, time-based training has the lowest proportion (14%) of currently registered apprentices (10) followed by entry-level competency-based training (25%; 73 apprentices) and specialty trainings (46%; 16 apprentices). However, the proportion of trainings completed shows a different trend: HHAs in time-based training have the highest proportion of completion at 56%, followed by specialty trainings at 17% with apprentices in entry-level competency-based training having the lowest proportion of completion of only 2%.

Cancelation rates are high in this group: 28% of apprentices in time-based training, 73% of apprentices in entry-level competency-based training and 37% of apprentices in HHA specialty trainings have cancelled their involvement. One HHA, in time-based training, was granted a suspension.

Regarding the length of apprenticeship, term length is lowest for specialty trainings (1,281 hours) and highest in entry-level competency-based training (2,000). Apprenticeships in time-based training average 1,656 hours.

On average, there are 125 hours of related instruction. Time-based training is characterized by the longest related instruction of 184 hours, followed by the 113 hours in entry-level competency-based training. The mean for related instruction for specialty trainings is 106 hours. For time-based and entry-level competency-based training, all of the instruction is provided onsite by sponsors. Slightly over half of those in specialty training are trained at the sponsor’s site.

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