A Description of Board and Care Facilities, Operators, and Residents. 5.2 Education, Training, and Experience

12/01/1995

5.2.1 Education

Direct Care Operators. Twenty-five percent of the direct care operators had at least a college degree. Another 38 percent attended vocational or trade school, had some college, or were 2-year college graduates. About one-fifth (21 percent) were high school graduates. Perhaps the most disturbing fact was that 17 percent of these operators were not high school graduates (see Exhibit 5-3). There was no difference in the educational background of staff by facility licensure status.

EXHIBIT 5-1. Demographics of Staff in Board and Care Homes by Licensure Status of Home
  Licensed Unlicensed   Significance  
Level
Total
  %     SE     %     SE     %     SE  
Age a  
<25 10 2.1 1 0.9   10 2.1
25-34 19 1.9 29 5.3   19 1.8
35-44 28 1.6 19 7.6   27 1.6
45-54 19 3.3 27 5.7   20 3.2
55-64 19 1.5 15 3.0   19 1.5
65+ 6 0.9 9 1.2   6 0.9
Mean Age 43 0.6 45 0.9   43 0.6
Race NS  
White 63 4.1 56 5.2   62 4.0
African American 21 3.1 36 3.9   22 2.9
Asian or Pacific Islander 10 5.2 2 1.0   10 5.0
American Indian or Alaskan Native 1 0.7 2 1.6   1 0.7
Other 5 1.9 5 2.9   5 1.8
Hispanic NS  
Yes 11 2.3 10 5.2   11 2.3
No 89 2.3 90 5.2   89 2.3
Gender NS  
Female 90 1.9 83 6.3   90 1.9
Male 10 1.9 17 6.3   11 1.9
NS = Not significant.
  1. Difference significant at 0.05.

Operators of small board and care facilities were less likely to be well educated than those in large board and care facilities, with 43 percent of operators of small facilities having a high school education or less, compared with 20 percent or more in large facilities. Over 80 percent of operators in large homes had some post-high school education compared to slightly over half of the small home operators (see Table B-1).

EXHIBIT 5-2. Age of Staff in Board and Care Homes by Facility Size

EXHIBIT 5-2. Age of Staff in Board and Care Homes by Facility Size

Staff. Almost half (48 percent) of the staff members in board and care facilities who were not direct care operators attended vocational or trade school, some college, or were 2-year college graduates. Another 23 percent were high school graduates. Seventeen percent had less than a high school education and 12 percent had at least a 4-year college degree (Exhibit 5-3).

Similar to the educational patterns observed for direct care operators, staff members in large facilities were more likely to have attended vocational or trade school, have some college, or be 2-year college graduates than those in small facilities (59 vs. 37 percent). Small facilities have more nonoperator staff members with a high school education or less as well as more with a 4-year college degree or more than do large facilities (43 vs. 33 percent, and 21 vs. 9 percent, respectively) (see Table B-4).

EXHIBIT 5-3. Education of Direct Care Operators and Staff in Board and Care Homes by Licensure Status of Home
  Licensed Unlicensed   Significance  
Level
Total
  %     SE     %     SE     %     SE  
Direct Care Operators NS  
8th grade or less 4 1.2 3 1.9   4 1.2
Some high school 12 3.3 14 4.6   13 3.1
High school grad/GED 20 1.8 35 16.1   21 1.8
Vocational or trade/technical school 4 3.0 5 2.1   4 2.8
Some college or 2-year college grad 34 6.4 20 6.3   34 6.2
4-year college grad 18 3.9 8 3.1   17 3.7
Postgraduate 7 2.2 16 6.9   8 2.0
Staff NS  
8th grade or less 4 1.5 2 1.2   4 1.5
Some high school 13 3.3 15 5.6   13 3.2
High school grad/GED 23 1.9 38 4.5   23 1.9
Vocational or trade/technical school 20 6.6 6 3.9   20 6.5
Some college or 2-year college grad 28 2.1 30 4.0   28 2.0
4-year college grad 8 3.3 8 4.2   8 3.2
Postgraduate 4 1.4 3 1.7   4 1.4
NS = Not significant.

5.2.2 Training

Direct Care Operators. About one-fourth of direct care operators were also licensed nurses. Sixteen percent were RNs, and 9 percent were LVNs or LPNs (Exhibit 5-4).

Seventy-seven percent of the direct care operators of board and care homes were trained in caring for the elderly, mentally ill (MI), and/or people with mental retardation or developmental disabilities (MR/DD) as well as in medication management. Eleven percent had been trained in caring for the elderly, MI, and/or MR/DD only, and 1 percent had been trained in medication management only.

Of direct care operators who received training, 43 percent got their training from a combination of sources. Forty percent got their training from a school or State agency only, 3 percent were trained within a board and care home, and 14 percent received their training from some other source.

More than two-thirds of the direct care operators of large board and care homes (71 percent) received their training from a school or State agency only as opposed to 36 percent of the operators of small board and care homes. On the other hand, 44 percent of operators of small homes received their training from a combination of sources as opposed to only 20 percent of operators of large homes (Exhibit 5-5).

Staff. Only 20 percent of the staff of board and care homes were licensed nurses. Of those who were licensed, 5 percent were RNs and 15 percent were LVNs or LPNs (Exhibit 5-4).

Almost half of the staff of board and care homes (49 percent) had been trained in caring for the elderly, mentally ill, and/or people with MR/DD, as well as in medication management. Thirty-nine percent had been trained in caring for the elderly, MI, and/or MR/DD only, and 2 percent had been trained in medication management only. Approximately one-tenth (10 percent) had none of the above-mentioned training.

Of board and care staff who received training, 40 percent got their training from a combination of sources, 30 percent got their training from a school or State agency only, 17 percent were trained within a board and care home, and 13 percent received their training from some other source.

Staff in large facilities are more likely than those in small facilities to have received their training from a school or State agency only (36 vs. 25 percent), while staff in small facilities are more likely than those in large facilities to have received their training from a source other than a board and care home, school, or State agency (17 vs. 10 percent) (Exhibit 5-6).

EXHIBIT 5-4. Training of Staff in Board and Care Homes
  Direct Care Operators Staff
  %     SE     %     SE  
Not RN, LVN, or LPN 76 5.6 80 4.3
RN 16 4.3 5 1.7
LVN or LPN 9 2.1 15 3.6
Training in ...
Caring for the elderly, mentally ill, and/or people with MR/DD only 11 1.6 39 3.7
Medication management only 1 0.7 2 0.6
Caring for the elderly, MI, and/or MR/DD, and medication management 77 2.0 49 2.1
None of the above 11 2.6 10 2.1
Training from ...
Board and care home only 3 1.2 17 4.5
School or State agency only 40 7.6 30 5.0
Other source only 14 3.8 13 2.1
Combination of sources 43 5.9 40 3.0

 

EXHIBIT 5-5. Source of Training of Direct Care Operators by Facility Size

EXHIBIT 5-5. Source of Training of Direct Care Operators by Facility Size

 

EXHIBIT 5-6. Source of Training of Board and Care Staff by Facility Size

EXHIBIT 5-6. Source of Training of Board and Care Staff by Facility Size

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