Operators tended to be female (80 percent), white (62 percent), and married (64 percent). However, African Americans and Asian Americans made up a significant percentage of the operators, 21 and 14 percent, respectively (Exhibit 4-1). The demographic profiles of operators in licensed and unlicensed facilities were virtually the same.
As shown in Exhibit 4-2, the educational background of operators in licensed homes was very similar to that of their unlicensed home counterparts. However, operators in licensed extensively regulated homes and those in comparable homes in States with limited regulation had very different educational backgrounds. Operators of licensed homes in extensively regulated States were better educated and more likely to have had prior experience in health care and training before becoming an operator than was true of operators in licensed homes in States with limited regulation. Almost one-fourth of the operators in the limited States had not completed high school compared to 13 percent of those in the extensively regulated States. Only 22 percent of operators in the limited regulated States has completed college, while almost one-third of those in the extensively regulated States were college graduates.
EXHIBIT 4-1. Operator Demographic Profile
|EXHIBIT 4-2. Operator Training and Experience|
|Total Population||Licensed Homes||Licensed Homes||Unlicensed Homes|
|Extensive States||State with Limited Regs|
|Previously worked in health care sector||72||3.7||77||3.4||59||4.8||c||73||3.7||51||9.7||c|
|Received training prior to operating the home||67||2.1||70||3.8||57||4||67||2.1||57||6.4|
|Less than high school||11||3.4||13||2.4||23||4||15||3.6||22||5.7|
|High school or vocational education||18||2.0||16||2.5||22||3.6||23||2.9||26||5.5|
|4-year college graduate||18||3.2||20||2.5||9||2||18||3.3||9||2.7|