Description and Assessment of State Approaches to Diversion Programs and Activities Under Welfare Reform. Notes


1. Rosenbaum, S. & Darnell, J. (1997). An Analysis of the Medicaid and Health-Related Provisions of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-193). Washington, D.C.: Center for Health Policy Research, The George Washington University Medical Center, February. Ku, L. & Coughlin, T. (1997). How the New Welfare Reform Law Affects Medicaid. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute, February

2. Department of Health and Human Services. (1997). Setting the Baseline: A Report on State Welfare Waivers. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, June. General Accounting Office (1997). Welfare Reform: States' Early Experiences with Benefit Termination. Washington, D.C.: GAO/HEHS-97-74, May

3. Holcomb, P., Pavetti, L., Ratcliffe, C. & Reidinger, S. (1998). Building Employment Focused Welfare Systems: Workfare and Other Work-Oriented Strategies in Five States Washington, DC:The Urban Institute, March.

4. Hereinafter the District of Columbia shall be included as a state when summary numbers are given about state diversion activities and programs, e.g., we will refer to these results as 31 of 51 states have implemented at least one diversion activity in at least part of the state

5. Twelve additional states require applicants to participate in a work-related orientation and/or register with the job service prior to benefit authorization.

6. Regional analyses of state-based or state-specific decision making is a common approach to examining state policy making, and the significance of variations therein, in the political science literature. The four broad regions and nine sub-regions used in this study represent the commonly-accepted approach to dividing up" the country. See Bradshaw, M., Regions and Regionalism in the United States, University Press of Mississippi:Jackson MI and London, 1988, at p.4. Because the premise of regional analysis is that states in proximity to each other will exert an effect on each others' policy making, Alaska and Hawaii are usually not included in regional analysis and thus we have excluded them as well. The purpose of the sub-regional analysis is add another level of geographic precision to the analysis. The following are the four regions. West: WA, OR, CA, NV, ID, MT, WY, UT, CO, AZ, NM; Midwest: ND, SD, NE, KS, MN, IA, MO, WI, IL, IN, MI, OH; South: TX, OK, AR, LA, MS, AL, TN, KY, WV, VA, DE, MD, NC, SC, GA, FL; Northeast: NY, PA, ME, VT, NH, RI, MA, CT, NJ. See Figure I-1 .

Broad Regions - United States.

7. The West region is composed of two subregions: Pacific and Mountain; the Midwest region is composed of two subregions: West North Central and East North Central; the Northeast is composed of two subregions: Middle Atlantic and New England, and the South region is composed of three subregions: West South Central, East South Central and South Atlantic. See Figure I-2.

Sub regions - United States