Costs of Mandatory Education and Training Programs for Teenage Parents on Welfare: Lessons from the Teenage Parent Demonstration. Endnotes


1.  Demonstration services are described in detail in other evaluation reports, including Hershey and Nagatoshi (1989) on general program implementation, Hershey (1991c) on identifying and enrolling teenage parents, Hershey (1991b) on program workshops, Hershey (1991a) on case management, and Hershey and Rangarajan (1993) on education and employment services.

2.  In identifying the resources used to deliver services, we distinguish between demonstration "program staff" and other staff.  Demonstration staff were those who worked at the demonstration offices in positions specified in the States' grant applications.  Grant funds were also used to cover the costs of some other staff from other organizations, as described in this chapter, by means of contracts for services.

3.  The demonstration guidelines established a goal of 30 hours of participation per week.

4.  Although not all of these topics were the basis for a distinct workshop in all sites, most of these topics were covered in some way in the initial workshops of all the sites.

5.  While some participants who arranged their own job training obtained it through the JTPA agency, a few others were attending proprietary schools at their own expense.  For the purpose of the cost analysis, who paid for the training is of no consequence, since we are estimating the overall resource cost rather than only program expenditures.