Consumer Education Initiatives in Financial and Health Literacy. References

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Endnotes

[1] In defined contribution plans, employees and in most cases employers pay fixed contributions into an individual account. The contributions are then invested. The returns on the investment are transferred back to the individual's account. The advantage of these plans is that contributions are pre-tax. The intent of this plan is to save for retirement in a simple and recurring manner.

[2] The NAAL study modified the original literacy level criteria to health information and defines Below Basic literacy as having no more than the most simple skills, such as locating easily identifiable information or numbers in a text or a form. Basic literacy indicates skills necessary to perform everyday tasks, such as reading and understanding information in commonplace texts, simple documents, and locating quantitative information and using it to solve simple one-step problems. Intermediate literacy is the ability to understand moderately dense and less commonplace text, locating information in dense, complex documents and making inferences about the information, and locating quantitative information and using it to solve problems when the arithmetic operation is not obvious. Proficient indicates skills necessary to perform more challenging and complex activities, such as reading lengthy, abstract prose, synthesizing information, or locating abstract quantitative information and using it to solve multi-step problems.

[3] This measured attitudes toward pregnancy, support of the childs development, level of safety (e.g., car seats), use of community resources, and use of illegal substances and tobacco.

[4] An interview with IHS contained a similar finding. The interview participant noted that although IHS measured health literacy levels as part of one of its projects; these levels did not correlate with how well individuals understood specific health information.

[5] Non-HDL cholesterol levels refer to the three other types of cholesterols: low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL). Measuring the non-HDL cholesterol is a newer method of predicting overall cardiovascular health.

[6] ORR defines refugee as any person who is outside any country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually resided, and who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion (HHS, ACF, ORR, 2008).

[7] In addition to refugees, ORR also serves asylees, Cuban/Haitian entrants, Amerasians, victims of human trafficking, unaccompanied alien children and survivors of torture. For further information, see http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/about/whoweserve.htm.

[8] U.S. Government Accounting Office (2010).

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