Consumer Education Initiatives in Financial and Health Literacy. References


Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckman (Eds.), Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.

Baker, D. W., Wolf, M. S., Feinglass, J., Thompson, J. A., Gazmararian, J. A., & Huang, J. (2007). Health literacy and mortality among elderly patients. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(14), 15031509.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191215.

Berkman, N. D., DeWalt, D. A., Pignone, M. P., Sheridan, S. L., Lohr, K. N., Lux, L., Sutton, S. F., Swinson, T., & Bonito, A. (2004). Literacy and health outcomes (AHRQ Publication No. 04-E007-2). Retrieved August 27, 2010, from

Brown, R., Carlson, B. L., Dale, S., Foster, L., Phillips, B. & Schore, J. (2007). Cash And Counseling: Improving the lives of Medicaid beneficiaries who need personal care or home- and community-based services. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.

Carman, K. L., Maurer, M., Yegian, J. M., Dardess, P., McGee, J., Evers, M., et al. (2010). Evidence that consumers are skeptical about evidence-based health care. Health Affairs, 29 (7), 1-7.

Champion, V. L., Springston, J. K., Zollinger, T. W., Saywell, R. M., Monahan, P. O., Zhao, Q., & Russel, K. M. (2006). Comparison of three interventions to increase mammography screening in low income African American women. Cancer Detection and Prevention, 30, 535544.

Chang, Y. & Lyons, A. C. (2008). Are financial education programs meeting the needs of financially disadvantaged consumers? Journal of Personal Finance, 7 (2), 84-109.

Christie, J., Itzkowitz, S., Lihau-Nkanza, Castillo, A., Redd, W., & Jandorf, L. (2008). A randomized controlled trial using patient navigation to increase colonoscopy screening among low-income minorities. Journal of the National Medical Association, 100 (3), 278284.

Collins, J. M. (2010). Effects of mandatory financial education on low-income clients. Focus, 27(1), 13-18.

Counsell, S.R., Callahan, C.M., Clark, D.O., Tu, W., Buttar, A.B., et al. (2007). Geriatric care management for low-income seniors: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 298 (22), 2673-4.

Courchane, M., Gailey, A., Zorn, P. (2007). Consumer credit literacy: At what price perception? Journal of Economics and Business,  60(1-2), 125138.

Courtney, M. E., Zinn, A., Zielewski, E. H., Bess, R. J., Malm, K. E., et al., (2008). Multi-site evaluation of foster youth programs: Evaluation of the life skills training program Los Angeles County, California. Washington DC: The Urban Institute.

Curley, J., Ssewamala, F., & Sherraden, M. (2009). Institutions and savings in low income households. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 36, 932.

Customer Care Measurement & Consulting (2006). Eldercare Locator Evaluation: Key Findings & Recommendations from Surveys of Callers & Area Agencies on Aging. Unpublished report provided by Administration on Aging interview participant.

Dansinger, M. L., Gleason, J. A., Griffith, J. L., Selker, H. P., & Schaefer, E. J. (2005). Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets for Weight Loss and Heart Disease Risk Reduction. JAMA, 293:43-53

Dellavigna, S., & Paserman, M. D. (2005). Job Search and Impatience. Journal of Labor Economics 23(3): 527-588.

DeMarco, D., Mills, G., & Ciurea, M. (2008). Assets for Independence Act Evaluation, Process Study: Final Report. A report prepared for the Administration for Children and Families under contract # 233-02-0088. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates.

Dobson, K. A., Black P. L., & Hein, M. L. (n.d.). Microenterprise Lending: A Cookbook for Mutual Success. A report to  Office of Refugee Resettlement. Washington, DC: ISED Solutions.

Drago, L. (2009). Diabetes education program in health center waiting room improves health literacy. AHRQ Health Care Innovations Exchange. Retrieved August 25, 2010 from

Ell, K., Vourlekis, B., Xie, B., Nedjat-Haiem, F. R., Lee, P., Muderspach, L., et al. (2009). Cancer treatment adherence among low-income women with breast or gynecologic cancer: A randomized controlled trial of patient navigation. Cancer, 115(19), 46064615.

Elliehausen, G., Lundquist, C. E., & Staten, M. E. (2007). The impact of credit counseling on subsequent borrower behavior. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 41(1), 128.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.  (2007). A longitudinal evaluation of the intermediate-term impact of the money smart financial education curriculum upon consumers behavior and confidence. Washington, DC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation,

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. (2009). FDIC national survey of unbanked and underbanked households. A report. Washington DC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

Fox, J., Bartholomae, S., & Lee, J. (2005). Building the case for financial education. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 39(1), 195214.

Gatti, M. E., Jacobson, K. L., Gazmararian, J. A., Schmotzer, B., & Kripalani, S. (2009). Relationships between beliefs about medications and adherence. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 66, 657664.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K. & Lewis, F.M. (2002). Health Behavior and Health Education. Theory, Research and Practice. San Francisco, CA: Wiley & Sons.

Gonyea, J. G. (2007). Improving the retirement prospects of lower-wage workers in a defined-contribution world. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 88(3), 453462.

Grinstein-Weiss, M., Curley, J., & Charles, P. (2007). Asset building in rural communities: The experience of individual development accounts. Rural Sociology, 72(1), 2546.

Grinstein-Weiss, M., Yeo, Y. H., Despard, M. R., Casalotti, A. M., & Zhan. M. (2010). Does prior banking experience matter? Differences of the banked and unbanked in individual development accounts. Journal of Family Economic Issues, 31:212227.

Grumbach, K., Bodenheimer, T., & Grundy, P. ( 2009). The outcomes of implementing patient-centered medical home interventions: A review of the evidence on quality, access and costs from recent prospective evaluation studies. Washington, DC: Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative.

Han, C. (2007). Savings in individual development accounts: Multilevel analyses of institutions. Retrieved January 24, 2010  from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (3299956)

Han, C. K., & Hong, S. I. (2006, May). Institutions and asset accumulation: A longitudinal data analysis. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal, Canada.

Hartarska, V. & Gonzales-Vega, C. (2006). Evidence on the effect of credit counseling on mortgage loan default by low-income households. Journal of Housing Economics, 15(1), 63-79.

Hathaway, I. & Khatiwada, S. (2008). Do financial education programs work? Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Retrieved August 24, 2010 from

Hein, M. L. (2006). The Office of Refugee Resettlements Individual Development Account (IDA) Program: An Evaluation Report. A report to  Office of Refugee Resettlement. Washington, DC: ISED Solutions.

Helman, R., Greenwald, M., Copeland, C., & VanDerhei, J. (2006). Will more of us be working forever? The 2006 Retirement Confidence Survey. EBRI Issue Brief, 292, 128.

Hilgert, M. A., Hogarth, J. M., & Beverly, S. G. (2003). Household financial management: The connection between knowledge and behavior. Federal Reserve Bulletin, 89(7), 720.

Himmelstein, D. U., Warren, E., Thorne, D., & Woolhander, S. (2005). Illness and injury as contributors to bankruptcy. Health Affairs, web exclusive, W5-W6.

Hostetter M. (2008). Case study: reducing hospital readmissions among heart failure patients at Catholic Healthcare Partners. Retrieved August 25, 2010 from

Institute of Medicine. (2004). Health Literacy: A Prescription To End Confusion. In L. Nielsen-Bohlman, A. M. Panzer, D. A. Kindig (Eds.) . Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Kagawa-Singer, M., Tanjasiri, S. P., Valdez, A., Yu, H., & Foo, M. A. (2009). Outcomes of a breast health project for Hmong women and men in California. American Journal of Public Health, 99 (S2), S467S473.

Khankari, K., Mickey E., Osborn C. Y., Makoul G., Clayman M., Silvia S., et al. (2007). Improving colorectal cancer screening among the medically underserved: A pilot study within a federally qualified health center. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22 (10), 14101414.

Kreuter, M. E., & Skinner, C. S. (2000). Tailoring: What's in a name? Health Education Research, 15 (1), 1-4.

Kutner, M., Greenberg, E., Jin, Y., & Paulsen, C. (2006). The Health Literacy Of America's Adults: Results From The 2003 National Assessment Of Adult Literacy (NCES 2006-483). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Loibl, C., Red Bird, B., Grinstein-Weiss, M., & Zhan, M. (2008). Yes, the poor can be taught to save  Evidence from a survey of IDA program participants. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Consumer Research, San Francisco, CA.

Lorig, K. R., Ritter, P., Stewart, A. L., Sobel, D. S., Brown, B. W., Bandura, A. et al. (2001). Chronic disease self-management program: 2-year health status and health care utilization outcomes. Medical Care, 39(11),1217-1223.

Lorig, K. R., Sobel, D. S., Ritter, P. L., Laurent, D., & Hobbs, M. (2001). Effect of a self-management program on patients with chronic disease. Effective Clinical Practice, 4(6),256-262.

Lorig, K. R., Sobel, D. S., Stewart A. L., Brown Jr, B. W., Ritter P. L., González, V. M., et al. (1999). Evidence suggesting that a chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing utilization and costs: A randomized trial. Medical Care, 37(1):5-14.

Lusardi, A. (2008). Financial literacy: An essential tool for informed consumer choice? (NBER Working Paper No. 14084). Retrieved August 23, 2010 from

Lusardi, A., Keller, A. & Keller, P. (2009). Increasing the effectiveness of retirement saving programs for females and low income employees: A marketing approach. A report prepared for the National Endowment for Financial Education. Denver, CO: NEFE.

Lusardi, A., Keller, P. & Keller, A. (2008). New ways to make people save: a social marketing approach. In Lusardi, A (Ed.), Overcoming the saving slump: How to increase the effectiveness of financial education and saving programs (209-236). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lusardi, A., & Mitchell, O. (2006). Financial literacy and planning: Implications for retirement wellbeing. A report funded from a grant from the Social Security Administration. Retrieved August 30, 2010 from

Lusardi, A., & Mitchell, O. (2009, May). Financial literacy: Evidence and implications for financial education. Trends and Issues. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from

Lyons, A. C., Palmer, L., Jayaratne, K. S. U., & Scherpf, E. (2006). Are we making the grade? A national overview of financial education and program evaluation. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 40(2), 208235.

Lyons, A., Chang, Y., & Scherpf, E. (2006). Translating financial education into behavior change for low-income populations. Financial Counseling and Planning, 17(2), 2745.

Mallach, A. (2001). Home ownership education and counseling: Issues in research and definition. Discussion Paper. Philadelphia, PA: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.

Martin, M. A., Catrambone, C. D., Kee, R. A., Evans, A. T., Sharp, T. et al. (2009). Improving asthma self-efficacy: Developing and testing a pilot community-based asthma intervention for African American adults. Journal of Allergy Clinical Immunology, 123(1), 153159.

Meier, S., & Sprenger, C. (2009). Discounting financial literacy: Time preferences and participation in financial education programs (IZA Working Paper 3507). Retrieved August 29, 2010 from

Mills, G., Lam., K., DeMarco, D., Rodger, C. & Kaul, B. (2008). Assets for Independence Act evaluation, impact Study: Final report. A report prepared for  Administration for Children and Families under contract # 233-02-0088. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates.

Montz, E., & Seshamani, M. (n.d.). A success story in American health care: Community based prevention in Nebraska. Retrieved August 25, 2010 from

National Council on Aging. (2007). Harnessing the power of partnerships: Lessons learned from My Medicare Matters. Washington DC: National Council on Aging.

OKeeffe, J. (2009). Implementing Self-Direction Programs with Flexible Individual Budgets: Lessons Learned from Cash and Counseling Replication States. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from

Percac-Lima, S., Grant, R. W., Green, A. R., Ashburner, J. M., Gamba, G., Oo, S., Richter, J. M., & Atlas, S. J. (2008). A culturally tailored navigator program for colorectal cancer screening in a community health center: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(2), 211217.

Piatt, G.A., Orchard, T.J., Emerson, S., Simmons, D., Songer, T.J., et al., (2006). Translating the chronic care model into the community: results from a randomized controlled trial of a multifaceted diabetes care intervention. Diabetes Care, 29 (4), 811-7.

Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C.C. (1984) The Transtheoretical Approach: Crossing Traditional Boundaries Of Therapy. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin.

Resnick, B., Shaughnessy, M., Galik, E., Scheve, A., Fitten, R., Morrison, T., et al. (2009). Pilot testing of the PRAISEDD intervention among African American and low-income older adults. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 24(5), 352361.

Rimsza, M. E., Butler, R. J., & Johnson, W. G. (2007). Impact of Medicaid disenrollment on health care use and cost. Pediatrics, 119, e1026e1032. Retrieved August 18, 2010 from

Rochon, D. (2007). Health literacy: A system approach to improve health. A presentation at the IOM Roundtable on March 23, 2007. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from

Rudd, R. (2004). Communicating health: Priorities and strategies for progress: Objective 11-2. Improvement of health literacy. Retrieved August 29, 2010  from

Sarkar, U., Fisher, L., & Schillinger, D. (2006). Is self-efficacy associated with diabetes self-management across race/ethnicity? And health literacy? Diabetes Care, 29 (4), 823829.

Shieh, C., Mays, R., McDaniel, A., & Yu, J. (2009). Health literacy and its association with the use of information sources and with barriers to information seeking in clinic-based pregnant women. Health Care for Women International, 30, 971988.

Shieh, C., McDaniel, A., & Ke, I. (2009). Information-seeking and its predictors in low-income pregnant women. American College of Nurse-Midwives, 54(5), 364372.

Smith, B. (2007). Social Marketing: Making it Fun, Easy, and Popular. 2nd National Social Marketing Conference, National Social Marketing Centre. September 24th 25th, 2007. Oxford, England.

Smith, S. A., & Wollesen, L. (2009). Home visits using reflective approach improve functional health literacy among low-income pregnant women and new parents. AHRQ Innovations Exchange. Retrieved August 25, 2010 from

Sudore, R. L., & Schillinger, D. (2009). Interventions to improve care for patients with limited health literacy. Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management, 16(1), 2029.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration of Children and Families, Office of Refugee Resettlement. (2008). Who we serve. Retrieved on August 30, 2010 from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Aging. (2009). and Usability Tests Report. A report provided by an AoA interview participant.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009a). Improving health literacy for older adults: Expert panel report 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2010 from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009b). The power of prevention: Chronic diseasethe public health challenge of the 21st century. Retrieved on September 1, 2010 from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. (2010). National Health Interview Survey, 1997September 2009, combined sample adult and sample child core components. (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population.) Retrieved on August 3, 2010 from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Behavioral Research Program. (2009). Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), 2003-2007. Retrieved on August 3, 2010 from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. (2006). Surgeon General's workshop on improving health literacy. Retrieved February 4, 2010 from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2005a). Health literacy is crucial to good health. Prevention Report. Retrieved August 22, 2010 from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2005b). Plain language: A promising strategy for clearly communicating health information and improving health literacy. Retrieved August 16, 2010 from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ( n.d.). Quick guide to health literacy. Retrieved August 24, 2010 from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.) With Understanding and Improving Health and Objectives for Improving Health. 2 vols. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, (2010). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition, Health Educators. Retrieved August 24, 2010 from

U.S. Government Accounting Office (2006). Financial literacy and education commission: Further progress needed to ensure effective national strategy. Retrieved on August 12, 2010 from

Valente, S., & Murray, L. P., Fisher, D. (2007). Nurses improve medication safety with  medication allergy and adverse drug reports. Journal of Nursing Care and Quality, 22 (4), 322-327.

Wagner, E. H. (1999). Care of older people with chronic illness. In Calkins, E., Boult, C., & Wagner, E. H. (eds). New Ways To Care For Older People: Building Systems Based On Evidence. New York, NY: Springer.

Westat.(2000).  Pension Counseling Feasibility Study. Rockville, MD: Westat.

Williams, M. V., & Maleque, N. (2009). Discharge education program increases patient understanding of treatment and follow up care. AHRQ Health Care Innovations Exchange.  Retrieved on August 19, 2010 from

Wiltshire, J. C., Roberts, V., Brown, R., & Sarto, G. E. (2009). The effects of socioeconomic status on participation in care among middle-aged and older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 21(2), 314335.

Wolf, M. S., Gazmararian, J. A., & Baker, D. W. (2005). Health literacy and functional health status among older adults. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165, 19461952.

Zhan, M., Anderson, S. G., & Scott, J. (2006). Financial knowledge of the low-income population: Effects of a financial education program. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 33(1), 5374.

Zhan, M., Anderson, S., & Scott, J. (2009). Banking knowledge and attitudes of immigrants: Effects of a financial education program. Social Development Issues, 31(3), 1532.

Zun, L. S., Downey, T., & Downey, L. (2006). English-language competency of self-declared English-speaking Hispanic patients using written tests of health literacy. Journal of the National Medical Association. 98 (6), 912-917.


[1] In defined contribution plans, employees and in most cases employers pay fixed contributions into an individual account. The contributions are then invested. The returns on the investment are transferred back to the individual's account. The advantage of these plans is that contributions are pre-tax. The intent of this plan is to save for retirement in a simple and recurring manner.

[2] The NAAL study modified the original literacy level criteria to health information and defines Below Basic literacy as having no more than the most simple skills, such as locating easily identifiable information or numbers in a text or a form. Basic literacy indicates skills necessary to perform everyday tasks, such as reading and understanding information in commonplace texts, simple documents, and locating quantitative information and using it to solve simple one-step problems. Intermediate literacy is the ability to understand moderately dense and less commonplace text, locating information in dense, complex documents and making inferences about the information, and locating quantitative information and using it to solve problems when the arithmetic operation is not obvious. Proficient indicates skills necessary to perform more challenging and complex activities, such as reading lengthy, abstract prose, synthesizing information, or locating abstract quantitative information and using it to solve multi-step problems.

[3] This measured attitudes toward pregnancy, support of the childs development, level of safety (e.g., car seats), use of community resources, and use of illegal substances and tobacco.

[4] An interview with IHS contained a similar finding. The interview participant noted that although IHS measured health literacy levels as part of one of its projects; these levels did not correlate with how well individuals understood specific health information.

[5] Non-HDL cholesterol levels refer to the three other types of cholesterols: low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL). Measuring the non-HDL cholesterol is a newer method of predicting overall cardiovascular health.

[6] ORR defines refugee as any person who is outside any country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually resided, and who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion (HHS, ACF, ORR, 2008).

[7] In addition to refugees, ORR also serves asylees, Cuban/Haitian entrants, Amerasians, victims of human trafficking, unaccompanied alien children and survivors of torture. For further information, see

[8] U.S. Government Accounting Office (2010).

How to Obtain a Printed Copy

To obtain a printed copy of this report, send the title and your mailing information to:

Human Services Policy, Room 404E
Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
200 Independence Ave, SW
Washington, DC 20201

Fax:  (202) 690-6562

View full report


"index.pdf" (pdf, 1.01Mb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®