Children in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Child-Only Cases with Relative Caregivers. 2.3.2 State Variation in Child-Only Caseloads

06/01/2004

Table 2-2 and Table 2-3 present data collected and presented for the Fifth Annual TANF Report to Congress (DHHS, 2003). Each table presents information for the period from October 2000 through September 2001. Both tables depict the variation in the composition of child-only cases among states.

Table 2-2 summarizes reasons that parents may be living in the household but not considered eligible for cash assistance through TANF. Although not all states provide detailed data, those that do show substantial variation in the distribution of parental-caregiver cases. As depicted in Table 2-2, almost half (49.5 percent) of child-only cases in the United States are cases in which the parent is present as a caregiver but not included in the assistance unit. Of these child-only cases, the majority (42.1 percent) are those in which a parent is not in the assistance unit due to having qualified for SSI benefits. The smallest portion of these cases (9.7 percent) is due to parent(s) being sanctioned and removed from TANF eligibility.

Composition of the child-only caseload varies among states as a result of policy and demographic variations. For example, California reports 69 percent of their total child-only cases are parental caregiver cases, with the majority of these due to parental citizenship status (DHHS, 2003). The 15 states in which the majority of child-only cases are parental include many of the states with the largest child-only caseloads (i.e., California, New York, Texas). Many of these states have substantial immigrant populations. Thirty states report that fewer than half of their child-only cases are parental. Among these states Alabama, Alaska, Iowa, Idaho, Hawaii, Nevada, Oklahoma, and Oregon all report fewer than 10 percent of child-only cases have parents present but not in the assistance unit.

Table 2-2.
Reasons Parents in Household Not Eligible for Assistance, October 2000 - September 2001
State Child-Only Families (Number) CO Families with Parents Reason Why Parents Are Not in AU (Percent)
Number Percent of All Child-Only Families Sanction SSI Benefit Citizenship Other
U.S. Total 786,932 389,773 49.5 9.7 42.1 31.8 16.4
Alabama 9,477 79 0.8 9.4 90.6 0.0 0.0
Alaska 1,078 38 3.6 0.0 0.0 63.8 36.2
Arizona 15,194 5,680 37.4 1.9 1.0 74.9 22.2
Arkansas 4,872 2,266 46.5 1.7 77.3 2.2 18.8
California 196,717 135,086 68.7 17.9 23.8 55.0 3.3
Colorado 4,416
Connecticut 8,874 3,025 34.1 0.0 40.4 19.9 39.7
Delaware 2,368 375 15.8 1.0 0.0 9.8 89.2
District of Columbia 4,280 2,101 49.1 53.5 28.8 5.6 12.1
Florida 34,113 14,197 41.6 3.1 53.5 0.0 43.4
Georgia 25,192 11,152 44.3 0.7 62.0 3.8 33.5
Hawaii 2,067 145 7.0 0.0 0.0 10.3 89.7
Idaho 950 5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0
Illinois 33,582 15,960 67.7 0.2 51.7 19.4 28.7
Indiana 9,066 5,054 55.7 18.6 76.0 4.4 1.0
Iowa 4,817 97 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0
Kansas 4,282 1,967 45.9 0.0 65.4 0.3 34.3
Kentucky 14,801 7,986 53.9 1.2 91.5 0.0 7.3
Louisiana 11,626 4,773 41.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0
Maine 2,359 1,239 52.5 32.7 0.0 0.0 67.3
Maryland 11,007
Massachusetts 16,418 11,264 68.6 4.8 82.3 5.4 7.5
Michigan 25,553 13,700 53.4 0.6 53.0 3.8 42.5
Minnesota 8,111 4,803 59.2 0.5 77.4 18.3 3.8
Mississippi 7,758 5,117 66.0 1.2 98.1 0.0 0.7
Missouri 12,350 6,462 52.2 0.0 73.4 0.0 26.6
Montana 1,036
Nebraska 3,233 1,281 39.6 0.0 38.9 0.0 61.1
Nevada 3,437 177 5.1 0.0 72.9 9.5 17.6
New Hampshire 1,604 759 47.3 0.0 79.9 0.0 20.1
New Jersey 17,404 1,855 10.7 99.1 0.0 0.0 0.9
New Mexico 4,115
New York 64,115 38,203 59.6 3.0 51.1 39.6 6.3
North Carolina 21,641 5,100 23.6 6.2 72.8 16.1 4.9
North Dakota 795 434 54.6 55.0 36.0 0.0 9.0
Ohio 37,964 15,051 39.6 0.0 76.4 0.0 23.6
Oklahoma 6,520 16 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0
Oregon 7,530 229 3.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Pennsylvania 26,214 15,957 60.9 19.3 0.1 0.0 80.6
Rhode Island 2,764 819 29.6 0.0 84.1 0.0 15.9
South Carolina 7,825 2,826 36.2 3.2 93.7 1.7 1.4
South Dakota 1,505 323 21.5 0.1 94.5 0.0 5.4
Tennessee 17,999 7,379 41.0 0.0 90.5 0.0 9.5
Texas 45,005 25,605 56.9 0.2 28.5 59.0 12.3
Utah 2,447 919 37.5 0.0 73.1 23.9 3.0
Vermont 942 531 56.4 1.3 100.0 0.0 0.0
Virginia 12,847 4,062 31.6 4.7 86.5 8.9 0.0
Washington 17,192 7,918 46.1 0.2 48.6 45.1 6.1
West Virginia 4,335
Wisconsin 11,714 5,789 49.4 0.0 93.7 0.1 6.2
Wyoming 366
Sources: DHHS, 2003.

Sanctioning policies vary among states. For example, some states begin the sanctioning process by removing the adult from the grant; however, after a brief transition period the state implements a "full family" sanction (Wood and Strong, 2002). Under this sanction, the state removes the entire family from the grant and closes the case. Therefore, a case generally exits sanction status within a few months as either (1) the parent begins complying with TANF requirements and the benefits are reinstated, or (2) the parent continues not complying and the case is closed.

Table 2-3. Relationship of Child-Only Recipient to Head of Household, October 2000 - September 2001

Table 2-3.
Relationship of Child-Only Recipient to Head of Household, October 2000 - September 2001
State Total Children Relationship to Head of Household (Percent of Child-Only Recipients)
Head of Household Child Grandchild Other Related Other Unrelated
U.S. Total 1,1391,263 2.3 62.8 21.8 10.4 2.7
Alabama 21,462 0.0 45.4 38.3 16.2 0.1
Alaska 1,665 0.0 59.3 29.2 11.2 0.3
Arizona 25,895 0.0 62.4 29.1 8.4 0.1
Arkansas 8,432 0.0 48.2 41.9 8.0 0.0
California 400,122 0.0 84.1 11.6 4.2 0.1
Colorado 8,078 0.0 47.6 40.5 10.7 1.3
Connecticut 12,869 0.0 36.6 42.2 18.4 2.9
Delaware 3,518 0.2 10.7 21.9 8.8 58.4
District of Columbia 7,294 0.5 55.7 29.0 13.4 1.4
Florida 58,209 4.9 39.1 0.0 28.0 28.1
Georgia 42,144 0.0 36.1 45.0 17.0 0.1
Hawaii 3,462 0.0 26.9 52.5 20.0 0.5
Idaho 1,317 0.0 1.3 72.1 26.7 0.0
Illinois 43,912 0.0 75.4 19.1 5.4 0.1
Indiana 15,956 0.0 59.4 32.3 8.3 0.0
Iowa 8,050 1.8 50.7 33.4 13.5 0.6
Kansas 7,165 0.0 44.5 41.2 12.7 1.6
Kentucky 21,834 0.3 58.1 30.5 10.8 0.1
Louisiana 21,770 2.0 54.9 32.3 10.7 0.2
Maine 3,809 0.0 86.8 10.3 2.8 0.0
Maryland 18,207 0.0 26.8 50.1 23.0 0.0
Massachusetts 27,120 0.0 70.0 23.2 6.8 0.0
Michigan 43,381 0.0 75.3 16.2 7.5 1.0
Minnesota 15,114 0.0 67.1 21.7 10.5 0.5
Mississippi 13,039 0.0 58.6 32.2 9.1 0.0
Missouri 20,847 0.0 55.6 31.8 10.9 1.6
Montana 1,769 0.2 45.2 39.4 15.2 0.1
Nebraska 5,354 11.1 42.2 0.0 42.4 4.3
Nevada 5,725 23.4 21.1 35.8 11.3 8.4
New Hampshire 2,238 0.0 51.2 31.7 16.6 0.5
New Jersey 29,888 0.0 48.5 35.7 14.3 1.5
New Mexico 7,368 0.0 69.6 23.1 7.2 0.0
New York 102,863 0.0 71.1 14.9 6.1 7.9
North Carolina 33,114 0.2 34.1 48.1 16.4 1.1
North Dakota 1,355 0.0 59.0 28.8 12.2 0.0
Ohio 59,309 39.8 39.6 1.2 19.3 0.1
Oklahoma 11,081 0.2 44.3 39.8 15.6 0.1
Oregon 11,400 4.5 53.7 22.7 4.4 13.3
Pennsylvania 44,228 2.8 63.8 23.8 9.3 0.4
Rhode Island 4,787 0.0 84.7 12.2 3.1 0.0
South Carolina 13,422 0.0 37.0 45.4 17.7 0.0
South Dakota 2,538 0.0 21.8 50.0 28.0 0.0
Tennessee 30,518 0.0 44.5 40.4 15.1 0.0
Texas 77,027 0.0 63.0 23.9 8.0 5.1
Utah 4,188 0.0 43.4 38.5 18.1 0.0
Vermont 1,357 0.0 58.9 29.0 12.0 0.0
Virginia 19,119 0.3 34.1 45.4 20.0 0.0
Washington 29,320 0.9 50.3 31.0 15.0 2.7
West Virginia 6,849 0.1 57.6 31.4 10.1 0.7
Wisconsin 21,878 0.0 55.1 25.2 19.7 0.0
Wyoming 538 0.0 37.6 45.8 16.5 0.0
Sources: DHHS, 2003.

By contrast, some states never remove the parents from the assistance unit as a consequence of work sanctioning. In these states, sanctioned cases are those in which parents fail to assist in child support procedures.

Table 2-3 presents the relationship of the TANF child recipient in a child-only case to the head of household. Nationally, the majority (63 percent) of children in child-only cases are children of the person listed as the head of household (indicating a parent present in the household). The next highest category of child-only recipients (22 percent) is that of grandchild of the person listed as the head of household. While 51.5 percent of child-only cases nationally are nonparental (Table 2-2), only 32.2 percent of children in child-only cases have relative caregivers (Table 2-3). This may indicate that child-only cases with parents present (e.g., SSI- and immigrant-headed families) have a larger number of children than child-only cases with relative caregivers. It is also noteworthy that while California, New York, and Texas all report less than half of their child-only cases as nonparental (Table 2-2), the large absolute number of total children in child-only cases in these three states (Table 2-3) means that the actual number of children living with a relative caregiver in these states may be similar to smaller states with a high proportion of nonparental child-only cases.

View full report

Preview
Download

"report.pdf" (pdf, 373.74Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®