The study team first reviewed recent studies characterizing child-only cases. Of particular interest were several studies examining this population in the context of state policies in California, Delaware, Florida, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Because states have implemented a variety of approaches to address child-only cases with relative caregivers, staff reviewed the most recent annual state TANF plan for all 50 states and Washington, DC. To complement the review of state TANF plans, staff also conducted phone conversations with regional administrators of the Administration for Children and Families. Study staff used these conversations to verify information obtained through the TANF state plans and to identify state initiatives addressing child-only relative caregiver cases. Finally, as a context for understanding the needs of children in TANF child-only cases with relative caregivers, the study team reviewed literature on the broader population of children in relative care, focusing on children's needs and well-being.