Children’s Health Coverage on the 5th Anniversary of CHIPRA. I. Health Insurance Coverage

02/04/2014

During the period from 1997 to 2012, the share of children with incomes at or below 200 percent of poverty who are uninsured was cut nearly by half, from 25 percent in 1997 to 13 percent in 2012 (Figure 1). The rate of uninsured low-income children declined by 3 percentage points from 2008 to 2012, despite the economic downturn that occurred in this period. There were 4 million more children insured in Medicaid or CHIP in 2012 compared with 2008, the year prior to enactment of CHIP reauthorization. Employer-sponsored coverage declined from 34 to 25 percent of low-income children over this 15-year period. Coverage in Medicaid and CHIP grew from 41 percent of low-income children in 1997 to 56 percent in 2008 to 63 percent in 2012.

Source: ASPE computations from Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS-ASEC) data for Calendar Years 1997-2012 (March 1998 – March 2013 surveys).

Notes: Children are ages 0-18.  Low-income is below 200 percent of poverty.


These gains in coverage have occurred among all racial and ethnic groups, but they are especially striking among Latino children (Figure 2).  The share of Latino low-income children who are uninsured fell from 34 percent in 1997 (9 percentage points higher than the rate for all low-income children) to 20 percent in 2008 to 17 percent in 2012 (only 4 percentage points higher than the rate for all low-income children).  The percentage uninsured fell from 21 percent to 14 percent in 2008 to 12 percent for White low-income children; from 22 percent to 12 percent in 2008 to 11 percent for African American low-income children; and from 24 percent to 19 percent in 2008 to 16 percent for Other low-income children, a category that combines Asian Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders due to small sample sizes for these groups.

Source: ASPE computations from Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS-ASEC) data for Calendar Years 1997-2012 (March 1998 – March 2013 surveys).

Notes: Children are ages 0-18.  Low-income is below 200 percent of poverty.  Latino includes all races.  Other includes Asian-American, Native-Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and American Indian and Alaska Native.  Non-Latino respondents indicating more than one race are assigned to a primary race.

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