The NHES shows that rural children age 0 to 5 were about as likely as urban children to receive care from someone other than their parents at least once a week, as shown in Figure 1. Examples of non-parental providers include: grandparents, older siblings, day care centers, pre-kindergarten programs, and care from friends, neighbors, and other non-relatives. In both urban and rural areas, about 6 in 10 pre-school age children received non-parental care at least once a week. About 8 in 10 children with employed mothers were cared for in non-parental care settings on a weekly basis.
Percent of Children Age 0 to 5 Not Yet in Kindergarten
in Non-Parental Care at Least Once a Week
** Urban/rural difference = p < 0.05
*** Urban/rural difference = p < 0.01
 Additional tables on child care arrangements are shown in the Appendix.
 Employed mothers in this paper include biological mothers, step-mothers, foster mothers, and guardians.