Characteristics of Low-Wage Workers and Their Labor Market Experiences: Evidence from the Mid- to Late 1990s. Table E.6. Cumulative Exit Rates From Employment Spells Among Female Low-Wage Workers, By Subgroup

04/30/2004

Table E.6.
Cumulative Exit Rates From Employment Spells Among Female
Low-Wage Workers, By Subgroup
Subgroup Cumulative Exit Rates for Females
4 Months or Less (Percentages) 12 Months or Less (Percentages) 24 Months or Less (Percentages) Log-Rank Statistic to Test Differences Across Subgroups
Overall 28 52 66  
Individual and Household Characteristics
Age (in Years) 39***
   Younger than 20 37 65 80  
   20 to 29 30 56 71  
   30 to 39 26 49 62  
   40 to 49 22 42 58  
   50 to 59 25 42 53  
   60 or older 25 45 61  
Race/Ethnicity 5*
   White and other non-Hispanic 26 50 64  
   Black, non-Hispanic 32 56 70  
   Hispanic 27 53 70  
Educational Attainment 18***
   Less than high school/GED 34 61 74  
   High school/GED 26 49 66  
   Some college 30 50 63  
   College graduate or more 21 47 59  
Has a Health Limitation 22***
   Yes 49 68 77  
   No 25 50 65  
   Household Type       2
   Single parent with children 27 55 69  
   Married couple with children 28 51 66  
   Married couple without children 26 48 64  
   Other adults without children 28 50 63  
Household Income as a Percentage of the Poverty Level 10***
   100 percent or less 33 58 69  
   101 to 200 percent 29 53 69  
   More than 200 percent 24 48 62  
Job Characteristics
Hourly Wages 19***
   Less than $5.00 33 59 72  
   $5.00 to $5.99 29 54 70  
   $6.00 to $6.99 24 48 63  
   $7.00 to $7.50 24 44 57  
Hours Worked per Week 9*
   1 to 19 35 56 68  
   20 to 34 28 54 69  
   35 to 40 25 48 63  
   More than 40 24 52 65  
Weekly Earnings 10***
   Less than $150 32 57 69  
   $150 to $299 25 49 65  
   $300 to $600 24 44 55  
Owns Business 2
   Yes 19 43 48  
   No 28 52 66  
Covered by Health Insurance(a) 16***
   Yes 24 46 60  
   No 30 56 71  
Occupation 27***
   Professional/technical 21 45 61  
   Sales/retail 31 57 70  
   Administrative support/clerical 24 43 56  
   Service professions/ handlers/cleaners 26 51 66  
   Machine/construction/ production/transportation 30 56 68  
   Farm/agricultural/other workers 53 70 84  
Industry 9*
   Agriculture/forestry/ fishing/hunting 35 56 68  
   Mining/manufacturing/ construction/ transportation/utilities 30 56 69  
   Wholesale/retail trade 29 54 68  
   Personal/health/other services 25 47 63  
   Other 20 29 29  
Source: 1996 SIPP longitudinal files using the entry cohort sample of 2,239 employment spells for male low-wage workers.
Note: All figures are weighted using the longitudinal panel weight.
a. These figures pertain to health insurance coverage from all sources, including coverage through the employer as well as from other sources. We used this variable instead of the employer-based health insurance coverage variable, because data on overall health insurance coverage is available monthly, whereas the employer-based coverage variable pertains only to jobs in progress at the time of the interview. Thus, the employer-based health insurance variable could not always be linked to the job under investigation, which led to a significant number of missing values. However, the subsets of health insurance variables overlap considerably: the source of health insurance coverage was the employer for 80 percent of those with any coverage.
* Significantly different from zero at the .10 level, two-tailed test
** Significantly different from zero at the .05 level, two-tailed test.
*** Significantly different from zero at the .01 level, two-tailed test.

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