Characteristics of Low-Wage Workers and Their Labor Market Experiences: Evidence from the Mid- to Late 1990s. Table C.4. Multivariate Analysis Findings For Additional Overall Employment Measures During The 42-Month Period, By Gender

04/30/2004

Table C.4.
Distribution Of Job Characteristics Of Low-Wage Workers In March 1996,
By Typology And Gender
(Percentages)
Explanatory Variable Regression-Adjusted Means for the Denoted Dependent Variable
Male Workers Female Workers
Percentage of Months in All Jobs Percentage of Months in Low-Wage Jobs Percentage in Higher-Wage Jobs for Less than 25 Percent of Months Percentage of Months in All Jobs Percentage of Months in Low-Wage Jobs Percentage in Higher-Wage Jobs for Less than 25 Percent of Months
Individual Characteristics
Age
В В В Younger than 20(+) 81 57 65 65 52 80
В В В 20 to 29 86 54 49* 75** 54 72
В В В 30 to 39 87 53 51 77*** 58 70
В В В 40 to 49 83 52 60 85*** 66*** 71
В В В 50 to 59 79 62 71 85*** 66*** 74
В В В 60 or older 71 58 78 74 58 74
Race/Ethnicity
В В В White and other non-Hispanic(+) 87 55 51 78 58 71
В В В Black, non-Hispanic 72*** 49 70** 73* 57 73
В В В Hispanic 84 60 63 75 60 81
Educational Attainment
В В В Less than high school/GED(+) 81 54 61 71 56 80
В В В High school/GED 86* 56 53 80*** 63** 76
В В В Some college 83 52 54 76 54 68*
В В В College graduate or more 88* 57 53 78* 54 66*
Has a Health Limitation
В В В No(+) 86 55 53 79 59 72
В В В Yes 72*** 52 71** 62*** 48*** 81
Household Characteristics
Household Type
В В В Single adults with children(+) 82 51 52 80 61 72
В В В Married couples with children 87 55 49 75* 58 76
В В В Married couples without children 82 54 59 75 58 73
В В В Other adults without children 84 57 62 79 55 63
Household Income as a Percentage of the Poverty Level
В В В 100 percent or less(+) 88 57 51 79 58 71
В В В 101 to 200 percent 85 55 55 72* 53 72
В В В More than 200 percent 83* 53 58 79 61 73
Received Public Assistance in the Past Year
В В В No(+) 85 55 55 78 59 72
В В В Yes 80 56 64 71** 53 73
Area Characteristics
Region of Residence
В В В Northeast(+) 87 57 55 83 54 62
В В В South 79* 54 61 79 60 72
В В В Midwest 86 56 56 77 62 77*
В В В Northwest 83 51 49 71*** 53 73
Lives in a Metropolitan Area
В В В No 80 54 64 80 63 76
В В В Yes 86** 55 52* 76* 56** 71
20th Percentile of the Hourly Wage Distribution in State
В В В $250 or less(+) 83 54 58 77 59 74
В В В $251 to $269 83 49 51 79 59 68
В В В $270 or more 87 57 54 77 57 73
Percentage of State Population Residing in Metropolitan Areas
В В В 72 or less(+) 86 58 55 79 57 67
В В В 73 to 84 86 54 51 76 58 76*
В В В 85 or more 80 52 60 76 59 76
Poverty Rate in State
В В В Less than 10 percent(+) 85 56 56 74 59 76
В В В 10 to 12 percent 83 52 53 78 57 71
В В В More than 12 percent 85 56 57 79 59 71
Unemployment Rate in State
В В В 6 percent or less(+) 86 56 52 74 59 79
В В В More than 6 percent 84 54 56 78 58 70
Change in Unemployment Rate in State of Residence Between 1996 and 1999 (Percentage Points)
В В В -2 percentage points or less(+) 86 59 68 89 69 73
В В В -1 to -2 83 54 54 76** 56** 71
В В В More than -1 85 54 51 75** 58 76
Initial Job Characteristics
Hourly Wages
В В В Less than $5.00(+) 83 62 66 69 57 84
В В В $5.00 to $5.99 82 62 69 80*** 65*** 80
В В В $6.00 to $6.99 88 50*** 44*** 81*** 56 64***
В В В $7.00 to $7.50 83 42*** 42*** 83*** 48* 51***
Usual Hours Worked per Week
В В В 1 to 19(+) 79 54 71 70 56 79
В В В 20 to 34 82 55 60 78** 57 71
В В В 35 to 40 86* 56 54 80*** 60 71
В В В More than 40 84 50 49* 73 54 73
Has More than One Job or Business
В В В No(+) 83 54 56 76 57 72
В В В Yes 92*** 60 52* 84*** 65** 73
Owns Business (Self-Employed)
В В В No(+) 84 56 57 77 58 73
В В В Yes 88 41*** 30** 89** 61 62
Covered by Health Insurance(a)
В В В No(+) 83 56 60 79 61 74
В В В Yes 87* 52 46** 76 55** 71
Union Member
В В В No(+) 85 55 55 77 58 72
В В В Yes 72** 45 63 73 54 72
Occupation
В В В Professional/technical(+) 91 61 56 81 58 66
В В В Sales/retail 86 54 48 77 55 69
В В В Administrative support/ clerical 85 56 55 75 53 67
В В В Service professions/ handlers/cleaners 83 56 60 79 62 75
В В В Machinists/construction/ production/transportation 85 51 48 72* 59 85***
В В В Farm/agricultural/other workers 80* 55 66 81 59 74
Regression R(2) Value .21 .17 NA .18 .15 NA
Sample Size 522 522 522 817 817 817
Source: 1996 SIPP longitudinal files using the entry cohort sample of workers who started low-wage jobs within six months after the start of the panel period. All workers were followed for 42 months after job start.
Note:В All figures are weighted using the 1996 calendar year weight, and standard errors account for design effects due to weighting and clustering.
a.В These figures pertain to health insurance coverage from all sources, including coverage through the employer as well as from other sources. We used this variable instead of the employer-based health insurance coverage variable, because data on overall health insurance coverage is available monthly, whereas the employer-based coverage variable pertains only to jobs in progress at the time of the interview. Thus, the employer-based health insurance variable could not always be linked to the job under investigation, which led to a significant number of missing values. However, the subsets of health insurance variables overlap considerably: the source of health insurance coverage was the employer for 80 percent of those with any coverage.
+В Denotes the "left-out" explanatory variable in the regression model.
Difference between the variable mean and the mean of the "left-out" explanatory variable is significantly different from zero at the .10 level, two-tailed test.
**В Difference between the variable mean and the mean of the "left-out" explanatory variable is significantly different from zero at the .05 level, two-tailed test.
***В Difference between the variable mean and the mean of the "left-out" explanatory variable is significantly different from zero at the .01 level, two-tailed test.

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