This study was conducted using data from the 1996 longitudinal panel of SIPP. The 1996 SIPP is a large, multipanel, longitudinal survey that collected demographic and socioeconomic information on a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. The data cover the period from late 1995 to early 2000, and 48 months of follow-up data are available for each individual in the longitudinal file. SIPP provides detailed monthly measures on labor force participation (for those age 15 and older), income, participation in public programs, and household composition. We supplemented the SIPP data with state-level data on economic conditions and poverty levels.