Characteristics of Long-Term Care Registered Apprenticeship Programs: Implications for Evaluation Design. 3.4. Characteristics of Apprentices


A large majority of the registered apprentices in all five sites who have enrolled since 2005 is women. Eighty-three percent of apprentices are women at Developmental Services, 92% at Home Care Associates, and 100% at Good Samaritan, Air Force Villages, and Agape (Table 3). This distribution reflects the gender composition of the long-term care industry nationally (Khatutsky, Wiener, Anderson, and Squillace, 2011). The racial composition of the registered apprentices enrolled at each site varies more dramatically. According to RAPIDS data, 96% and 87% of the apprentices at Developmental Services and Good Samaritan, respectively, are White. Seventeen percent of apprentices at Agape, less than 15% of apprentices at Air Force Villages, and none at Home Care Associates are White. African-American apprentices who have enrolled in the apprenticeship program make up 85% of the staff at Home Care Associates and 71% of apprentices at Agape, but less than 10% at all other sites. The apprentices at Air Force Villages are predominantly (74%)Hispanic. The racial compositions of the sites’ apprentices reflect the populations of lower income and lower skill populations in the regions they serve. The mean age of apprentices in all sites is over the age of 35. Developmental Services and Good Samaritan have somewhat younger average workforces (39 and 38 years, respectively) than Home Care Associates and Air Force Village (43 years) or Agape (41 years).

Most apprentices at all sites except for Home Care Associates hold a high school diploma as their highest degree earned, with many of the remaining apprentices holding a general equivalency degree (GED). At Home Care Associates, 42% of apprentices have a diploma and 12% have a GED, leaving 46% with 11 years of high school or less. Few apprentices at the sites have any college experience, although staff at some sites suggested that a few apprentices may leave the sponsoring organization to attend nursing school. The exception was Agape, where 13 apprentices (23% of the apprentices recorded in the RAPIDS data) had at least some college. This was likely due to the fact that the local technical college system was an important recruitment source for Agape.

Demographically, the sites visited differ from the national profile of LTC RAPs. Developmental Services is the only site that closely resembles the wider population of DSS LTC RAPs. However, this is primarily because the majority of registered apprentices in the DSS occupation nationally are employed at Developmental Services. Differences emerge between the other four sites and the wider population of apprentices in the same occupations. The other four sites have older apprentices than is typical in their occupation nationally. Home Care Associates has a considerably higher share of workers that are African-American and high school dropouts than HHA LTC RAPs nationally. In contrast, Good Samaritan has more educated and White apprentices than CNA apprentices nationally. Air Force Villages, like Home Care Associates, has more minorities than other CNA or HSS LTC RAPs nationally (in the case of Air Force Village, more Hispanics). Its apprentices are also more likely to have graduated high school than the typical CNA or HSS apprentices.

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