As shown in Table 2, all sites advertise for new hires through typical job resources such as newspapers and the Internet, and at job fairs. Staff at Developmental Services, Home Care Associates, and Good Samaritan noted that the apprenticeship is a major attraction for job applicants. Apprentices at Home Care Associates suggested that word-of-mouth was particularly important in recruitment of general staff, from among whom apprentices are selected; employees actively spread word about the quality of the training at Home Care Associates. Home Care Associates also recruits entry-level employees from the Philadelphia Workforce Development Corporation, which provides an Industry Specific Partnership Initiative training grant to fund the basic training for new hires who receive Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) benefits. Agape apprentices also noted word-of-mouth about the quality of Agape training as an important factor, not in attracting general staff to Agape but in fostering interest among the CNAs in the apprenticeship itself. After the first cohort, non-apprentice CNAs learned about the nature of the program and the value that supervisors placed on the training received by apprentices.
Four of the five LTC RAPs visited (Air Force Villages, Good Samaritan, Home Care Associates, and Agape) recruited apprentices from within their existing workforce through a selection process conducted by management (Table 2). Managers often selected staff with positive attitudes, leadership qualities, and experience. At Good Samaritan, one manager indicated that she could determine whether a staff member would succeed as an apprentice immediately after they were hired, on the basis of their enthusiasm for the job. At Air Force Villages, managers emphasized that it was essential to select staff who they believed would succeed in the apprenticeship. Home Care Associates and Air Force Villages both had minimum tenure requirements for apprentices. Staff must be employed at Home Care Associates for 6 months and at Air Force Villages for between 3 and 6 months before entering the LTC RAP. Home Care Associates requires the recommendation of a supervisor before a staff member can enter the apprenticeship. At Air Force Villages, future apprentices also go through the application process and are required to demonstrate motivation and provide reasons for enrolling. Agape uses an employee assessment software tool, called Wingspan, to rank their CNAs and classify them as being in the top 20%, middle 70%, or bottom 10% of its workforce. Apprentices are primarily chosen from the top 20%, with a recommendation from a supervisor. As Developmental Services places all new hires into its LTC RAP, apprentices are recruited through employment advertising and screening processes.