Characteristics of Families Using Title IV-D Services in 1999 and 2001. Family Income and Poverty

10/01/2003

Income

About 3.2 million (40.5 percent) of all IV-D families had a family income under $20,000 in 2001, while 4.6 million (57 percent) had an income under $30,000 (Table 3). Families receiving TANF or other public assistance had, on average, lower incomes than those not receiving assistance. More than three-quarters of child support-eligible families receiving cash assistance, and one-half of those reporting other public assistance, had incomes of $20,000 or below.  Of IV-D families receiving no public assistance only one in five had incomes below $20,000.

Families participating in the IV-D program generally had lower incomes than non IV-D families. While the annual incomes of 40 percent of IV-D families fell below $20,000, less than 20 percent of non IV-D families fell into that same income range. In both categories, families receiving no public assistance had higher incomes than those reporting some reliance on government programs.

TABLE 3:
FAMILY INCOME LEVEL & RECEIPT OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE(1)
OF CSE ELIGIBLE FAMILIES: 2001
  All CSE Eligible Families TANF Cash Assistance Non-TANF Assistance Only No Public Assistance
Income Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
All Cases 13,382,897 100.0% 1,024,125 100.0% 4,034,277 100.0% 8,324,495 100.0%
$0 313,239 2.3% 0 0.0% 168,244 4.2% 144,995 1.7%
$1 to $5000 670,810 5.0% 202,551 19.8% 334,634 8.3% 133,624 1.%
$5001 to $10,000 951,341 7.1% 299,694 29.3% 505,832 12.5% 145,815 1.8%
$10,001 to $15,000 1,107,819 8.3% 192,643 18.8% 580,400 14.4% 334,776 4.0%
$15,001 to $20,000 1,102,563 8.2% 81,622 8.0% 508,409 12.% 512,532 6.2%
$20,001 to $25,000 1,073,471 8.0% 59,821 5.8% 425,988 10.6% 587,662 7.1%
$25,001 to $30,000 1,048,736 7.8% 80,202 7.8% 306,926 7.6% 661,608 7.9%
above $30,000 7,114,919 53.2% 107,592 10.5% 1,203,844 29.8% 5,803,483 69.7%
 
IV-D Yes 8,027,892 100.0% 1,024,125 100.0% 3,740,188 100.0% 3,263,579 100.0%
$0 197,829 2.5% 0 0.0% 160,291 4.3% 37,538 1.2%
$1 to $5000 592,665 7.4% 202,551 19.8% 322,635 8.6% 67,480 2.1%
$5001 to $10,000 839,345 10.5% 299,694 29.3% 472,036 12.6% 67,615 2.1%
$10,001 to $15,000 83,563 10.8% 192,643 18.8% 542,462 14.5% 128,459 3.9%
$15,001 to $20,000 747,467 9.3% 81,622 8.0% 460,423 12.3% 205,423 6.3%
$20,001 to $25,000 707,852 8.8% 59,821 5.8% 383,569 10.3% 264,461 8.1%
$25,001 to $30,000 648,876 8.1% 80,202 7.8% 290,418 7.8% 278,256 8.5%
above $30,000 3,430,296 42.7% 107,592 10.5% 1,108,355 29.6% 2,214,348 67.9%
 
IV-D No 5,355,005 100.0% 0 N/A 294,089 100.0% 5,060,916 100.0%
$0 115,411 2.2% 0 N/A 7,954 2.7% 107,457 2.1%
$1 to $5000 78,144 1.5% 0 N/A 12,000 4.1% 66,145 1.3%
$5001 to $10,000 111,997 2.1% 0 N/A 33,797 11.5% 78,200 1.5%
$10,001 to $15,000 244,255 4.6% 0 N/A 37,939 12.9% 206,317 4.1%
$15,001 to $20,000 355,096 6.6% 0 N/A 47,986 16.3% 307,109 6.1%
$20,001 to $25,000 365,619 6.8% 0 N/A 42,418 14.4% 323,201 6.4%
$25,001 to $30,000 399,860 7.5% 0 N/A 16,508 5.6% 383,352 7.6%
above $30,000 3,684,623 68.8% 0 N/A 95,488 32.5% 3,589,135 70.9%
(1) Public assistance is defined as TANF cash asst., Medicaid, food stamps, housing subsidy and/or SSI.
SOURCE: CPS/CSS Match File, March/April 2002.

Ratio of Income to Poverty Level

In addition to family income, the ratio of the family's income to the poverty level is an important measure of economic well-being. Each year, the Census Bureau estimates poverty thresholds that are adjusted for the size of the family unit. In 2001, the weighted average poverty threshold was $14,630 for a family of three and $17,650 for a family of four (Table 4A).

Income/Poverty
Ratio
Two Persons Three Persons Four Persons Five Persons Six Persons Seven Persons
TABLE 4A:
POVERTY THRESHOLDS, BY FAMILY SIZE: 2001
50% $5,805 $7,315 $8,825 $10,335 $11,845 $13,355
100% $11,610 $14,630 $17,650 $20,670 $23,690 $26,710
150% $17,415 $21,945 $26,475 $31,005 $35,535 $40,065
200% $23,220 $29,260 $35,300 $41,340 $47,380 $53,420
250% $29,025 $36,575 $44,125 $51,675 $59,225 $66,775
300% $34,830 $43,890 $52,950 $62,010 $71,070 $80,130
SOURCES: HHS Poverty Guidelines: http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/figures-fed-reg.shtml

About 2.6 million, or about one third of the IV-D families were below the poverty threshold, and about three-fifths had incomes that fell below 200 percent of the poverty level. In addition, nearly 16 percent of IV-D families were in "deep poverty", or had incomes below 50 percent of the poverty level (Table 4B). A large majority (72 percent) of IV-D families receiving cash assistance were poor, as were 42 percent of those families receiving only other government assistance. IV-D families with no public assistance were less poor, with less than one in ten having incomes below poverty and almost 70 percent having incomes at or above 200 percent of the poverty level.

In contrast to those families receiving IV-D services, only 10 percent of non-IV-D families were poor, while about 70 percent of these families had incomes above 200 percent of the poverty level. Additional outcomes for families both in poverty and near poverty (incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty level) can be found later in this analysis.

TABLE 4B:
RATIO OF FAMILY INCOME TO POVERTY LEVEL & RECEIPT OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE(1)
FOR CSE ELIGIBLE FAMILIES: 2001
  All CSE Eligible Families TANF Cash Assistance Non-TANF Assistance Only No Public Assistance
Income/Poverty
Ratio
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
TOTAL 13,382,897 100.0% 1,024,125 100.0% 4,034,277 100.0% 8,324,495 100.0%
<50% 1,485,537 11.1% 403,899 39.4% 756,782 18.8% 324,855 3.9%
50 to 99% 1,645,630 12.3% 332,384 32.5% 932,387 23.1% 380,859 4.6%
100 to 149% 1,743,621 13.0% 138,663 13.5% 797,746 19.8% 807,212 9.7%
150 to 199% 1,596,197 11.9% 64,197 6.3% 594,887 14.7% 937,114 11.3%
200 to 249% 1,572,476 11.7% 32,905 3.2% 380,242 9.4% 1,159,329 13.9%
250 to 299% 1,332,664 10.0% 19,510 1.9% 224,922 5.6% 1,088,232 13.1%
>300% 4,006,772 29.9% 32,566 3.2% 347,311 8.6% 3,626,895 43.6%
 
IV-D Yes 8,027,892 100.0% 1,024,125 100.0% 3,740,188 100.0% 3,263,579 100.0%
<50% 1,248,756 15.6% 403,899 39.4% 717,850 19.2% 127,007 3.9%
50 to 99% 1,368,095 17.0% 332,384 32.5% 866,275 23.2% 169,436 5.2%
100 to 149% 1,187,735 14.8% 138,3 13.5% 724,763 19.4% 324,308 9.9%
150 to 199% 1,014,301 12.6% 64,197 6.3% 567,455 15.2% 382,649 11.7%
200 to 249% 875,943 10.9% 32,905 3.2% 341,502 9.1% 501,536 15.4%
250 to 299% 680,262 8.5% 19,510 1.9% 198,568 5.3% 462,183 14.2%
>300% 1,652,800 20.6% 32,566 3.2% 323,775 8.7% 1,296,459 39.7%
 
IV-D No 5,355,005 100.0% 0 N/A 294,089 100.0% 5,060,916 100.0%
<50% 236,781 4.4% 0 N/A 38,932 13.2% 197,848 3.9%
50 to 99% 277,535 5.2% 0 N/A 66,112 22.5% 211,422 4.2%
100 to 149% 555,887 10.4% 0 N/A 72,983 24.8% 482,904 9.5%
150 to 199% 581,896 10.9% 0 N/A 27,432 9.3% 554,464 11.0%
200 to 249% 696,533 13.0% 0 N/A 38,740 13.2% 657,793 13.0%
250 to 299% 652,402 12.2% 0 N/A 26,354 9.0% 626,048 12.4%
>300% 2,353,972 44.0% 0 N/A 23,536 8.0% 2,330,436 46.0%
(1) Public assistance is defined as TANF cash asst., Medicaid, food stamps, housing subsidy and/or SSI.
SOURCE: CPS/CSS Match File, March/April 2002.