Characteristics of Families Using Title IV-D Services in 1999 and 2001. Demographics

10/01/2003

Gender of Custodial Parent

The majority of all child support eligible families are headed by custodial mothers (85 percent).  In the IV-D system, there were about 7.2 million families headed by females in 2001, making up almost 90 percent of all families receiving IV-D services (Table 5). Only about 850,000 families headed by fathers were in the IV-D caseload. However, while families headed by custodial fathers made up 10 percent of IV-D families, custodial fathers headed nearly a quarter (23 percent) of child support-eligible families not receiving IV-D services. In addition, custodial fathers were less likely than custodial mothers to depend on any type of public assistance; about three-quarters of child support eligible families headed by men were receiving no public assistance in 2001, compared to sixty percent of mother headed families.

TABLE 5:
GENDER OF CUSTODIAL PARENT & RECEIPT OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE(1)
OF CSE ELIGIBLE FAMILIES: 2001
NUMBER
CP Gender All CSE Eligible Families TANF Cash Assistance Non-TANF Assistance Only No Public Assistance
TOTAL 13,382,897 1,024,125 4,034,277 8,324,495
Mothers 11,291,003 957,713 3,605,498 6,727,792
Fathers 2,091,894 66,412 428,779 1,596,703
 
IV-D Yes 8,027,892 1,024,125 3,740,188 3,263,579
Mothers 7,174,718 957,713 3,356,895 2,860,110
Fathers 853,174 66,412 383,293 403,469
 
IV-D No 5,355,005 0 294,089 5,060,916
Mothers 4,116,285 0 248,603 3,867,682
Fathers 1,238,720 0 45,486 1,193,234
 
PERCENTAGE
CP Gender All CSE Eligible Families TANF Cash Assistance Non-TANF Assistance Only No Public Assistance
TOTAL 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Mothers 84.4% 93.5% 89.4% 80.8%
Fathers 15.6% 6.5% 10.6% 19.2%
 
IV-D Yes 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Mothers 89.4% 93.5% 89.8% 87.6%
Fathers 10.6% 6.5% 10.2% 12.4%
 
IV-D No 100.0% N/A 100.0% 100.0%
Mothers 76.9% N/A 84.5% 76.4%
Fathers 23.1% N/A 15.5% 23.6%
(1) Public assistance is defined as TANF cash asst., Medicaid, food stamps, housing subsidy and/or SSI.
SOURCE: CPS/CSS Match File, March/April 2002.

Marital Status of Custodial Parent

Among all custodial parents of IV-D families in 2001, 36 percent had never been married, while 42 percent were divorced or separated, 21 percent were currently married, and a small number had been widowed. By contrast, a lower percentage (20 percent) of non IV-D parents had never been married (Table 6). Of all families headed by a never-married parent, almost three-fourths were participating in the IV-D program. Never-married parents also made up about half of the IV-D family heads who also received TANF cash assistance in 2001 (51 percent). Of those families not receiving IV-D services, a greater proportion (80) percent were headed by parents who were divorced, separated, or currently married.

TABLE 6:
MARITAL STATUS OF CUSTODIAL PARENT & RECEIPT OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE(1)
OF CSE ELIGIBLE FAMILIES: 2001
NUMBER
CP Marital Status All CSE Eligible Families TANF Cash Assistance Non-TANF Assistance Only No Public Assistance
TOTAL 13,382,897 1,024,125 4,034,277 8,324,495
Married 3,193,799 76,211 651,778 2,465,811
Widowed 128,557 0 45,884 82,672
Divorced 4,465,847 240,689 1,069,915 3,155,243
Separated 1,645,809 187,007 492,361 966,441
Never Married 3,948,884 520,218 1,774,338 1,654,329
 
IV-D Yes 8,027,892 1,024,125 3,740,188 3,263,579
Married 1,675,477 76,211 615,106 984,160
Widowed 87,623 0 45,884 41,738
Divorced 2,429,709 240,689 977,969 1,211,051
Separated 942,437 187,007 439,697 315,732
Never Married 2,892,646 520,218 1,661,532 710,897
 
IV-D No 5,355,005 0 294,089 5,060,916
Married 1,518,322 0 36,672 1,481,650
Widowed 40,934 0 0 40,934
Divorced 2,036,138 0 91,946 1,944,191
Separated 703,372 0 52,664 650,708
Never Married 1,056,238 0 112,806 943,432
PERCENTAGE
CP Marital Status All CSE Eligible Families TANF Cash Assistance Non-TANF Assistance Only No Public Assistance
TOTAL 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Married 23.9% 7.4% 16.2% 29.6%
Widowed 1.0% 0.0% 1.1% 1.0%
Divorced 33.4% 23.5% 26.5% 37.9%
Separated 12.3% 18.3% 12.2% 11.6%
Never Married 29.5% 50.8% 44.0% 19.9%
 
IV-D Yes 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Married 20.9% 7.4% 16.4% 30.2%
Widowed 1.1% 0.0% 1.2% 1.3%
Divorced 30.3% 23.5% 26.1% 37.1%
Separated 11.7% 18.3% 11.8% 9.7%
Never Married 36.0% 50.8% 44.4% 21.8%
 
IV-D No 100.0% N/A 100.0% 100.0%
Married 28.4% N/A 12.5% 29.3%
Widowed 0.8% N/A 0.0% 0.8%
Divorced 38.0% N/A 31.3% 38.4%
Separated 13.1% N/A 17.9% 12.9%
Never Married 19.7% N/A 38.4% 18.6%
(1) Public assistance is defined as TANF cash asst., Medicaid, food stamps, housing subsidy and/or SSI.
SOURCE: CPS/CSS Match File, March/April 2002.

Residence of Non-custodial Parent

The data indicate that the custodial parent and non-custodial parent did not live in the same state in nearly 2.1 million IV-D families, comprising just over one quarter of the IV-D caseload (Table 7). The percentage of interstate cases was substantially the same within and outside the IV-D caseload.  Within the IV-D caseload, custodial mothers receiving TANF were slightly less likely than those receiving other public assistance or no public assistance to report that the non-custodial parent lived in a different state. (22%, 26% and 26% respectively). However, among those not receiving IV-D services, custodial parents who reported receiving non-cash government assistance were almost 10 percentage points more likely than those not receiving assistance to live in a different state than the non-custodial parent (33 percent as compared to 24 percent).

TABLE 7:
RESIDENCE OF NON-CUSTODIAL PARENT & RECEIPT OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE(1)
OF CSE ELIGIBLE FAMILIES: 2001
NUMBER
NCP Residence All CSE Eligible Families TANF Cash Assistance Non-TANF Assistance Only No Public Assistance
TOTAL 13,382,897 1,024,125 4,034,277 8,324,495
In-state 10,013,862 794,826 2,952,544 6,266,492
Out-of-state 3,369,035 229,299 1,081,733 2,058,003
 
IV-D Yes 8,027,892 1,024,125 3,740,188 3,263,579
In-state 5,977,332 794,826 2,756,747 2,425,758
Out-of-state 2,050,560 229,299 983,441 837,821
 
IV-D No 5,355,005 0 294,089 5,060,916
In-state 4,036,531 0 195,797 3,840,734
Out-of-state 1,318,474 0 98,292 1,220,182
PERCENTAGE
NCP Residence All CSE Eligible Families TANF Cash Assistance Non-TANF Assistance Only No Public Assistance
TOTAL 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
In-State 74.8% 77.6% 73.2% 75.3%
Out-of-state 25.2% 22.4% 26.8% 24.7%
 
IV-D Yes 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
In-state 74.5% 77.6% 73.7% 74.3%
Out-of-state 25.5% 22.4% 26.3% 25.7%
 
IV-D No 100.0% N/A 100.0% 100.0%
In-state 75.4% N/A 66.6% 75.9%
Out-of-state 24.6% N/A 33.4% 24.1%
(1) Public assistance is defined as TANF cash asst., Medicaid, food stamps, housing subsidy and/or SSI.
SOURCE: CPS/CSS Match File, March/April 2002.