Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground. Medical Interventions


  • Medical assessments and subsequent care should be provided through arrangements with healthcare facilities accessible to individuals in the community or on-site, and should include the provision of preventive and primary medical care (including prenatal care, if appropriate); medical or medically supervised detoxification services, where clinically indicated; linkage to psychiatric care; provision of or established referral linkages as needed for acute medical care; testing and treatment for hepatitis, tuberculosis, HIV and HIV disease, sexually transmitted diseases, anemia and malnutrition, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, liver disorders, eating disorders, gynecological problems, dental and vision problems, and poor hygiene.  It is preferable to have a healthcare professional available to consult directly with the program.
  • Women's Health Services.  Preconceptional care should be provided either on-site or through referral, for nutrition, family planning, and general gynecological services to those women deemed appropriate.
  • Pharmacotherapy intervention should be provided on an as-needed basis and should include provision of, or established referral linkages, for concomitant assessment and monitoring by qualified medical or psychiatric staff.  Interventions should promote equal access to treatment for all women based on assessment of their ability to participate in treatment.
  • Urine testing should be used where clinically appropriate, and should be conducted on an initial and random basis.  (See TIPs.)  The program should follow informed consent guidelines responsive to State reporting requirements, if applicable.
  • Infant and Child Health Services.  Infant and child health services should be provided either on-site or through referral and should include the following:  primary and acute healthcare for infants and children, including immunizations, nutrition services (including assessment for WIC eligibility), and a developmental assessment by qualified personnel.  For treatment programs without medical personnel on-site, a back-up medical plan that identifies a protocol for pediatric emergencies must be in place.
  • Early Intervention Services.  Access to an age-appropriate, comprehensive developmental assessment by qualified personnel, including an assessment of learning and developmental disabilities, should be provided to all children, beginning at birth.  On-site provision of, or referral to, early intervention and remedial programs, and linkages with State Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) should be encouraged.
  • Home-Based Support.  Public health nursing and/or social work visits should be provided to high-risk postpartum women and their infants, especially to new mothers and those who are discharged within 24 hours after delivery.  Linkages and referrals should be established with home care agencies.
  • Counseling for HIV-positive/AIDS Patients.  The program must provide for pre- and post-test counseling for HIV-positive/AIDS patients as well as individual counseling and support groups.  Staff should be properly trained to intervene on behalf of those who are HIV-seropositive, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic.  Appropriate care for HIV-positive children must also be assured.