Barriers to Self-Sufficiency and Avenues to Success Among Teenage Mothers. Endnotes


1.  See for example, A. T. Geronimus, "On teenage Childbearing in the United States," Population and Development Review, 1987, vol. 13, pp. 245-279;  A. T. Geronimus, "Teenage Childbearing and Social Reproductive Disadvantage:  The Evolution of Complex Questions and the Demise of Simple Answers," Family Relations, 1991, vol. 40. pp. 463-471;  and M. Vinovskis, An "Epidemic" of Adolescent Pregnancy?  Some Historical and Policy Considerations.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1988.

2.  See F. F. Furstenberg, "As the Pendulum Swings:  Teenage Childbearing and Social Concern.  Family Relations, 1991, vol. 40, pp. 139-147.

3.  There are a few preventive interventions for which the early evaluation data appear quite encouraging, particularly for young teenagers who are not yet sexually active.  These include Marion Howard's "Postponing Sexual Involvement" program (see M. Howard and J. McCabe, "Helping Teenagers Postpone Sexual Involvement," Family Planning Perspectives, 1990, vol. 22, pp.21-26) and the "Reducing the Risk" curriculum of R. Barth, Reducing the Risk:  Building Skills to Prevent Pregnancy.  Santa Cruz, CA:  Network Publications, 1989.

4.  Caseload size and other aspects of "strong" case management are discussed in another demonstration monograph, Case Management for Teenage Parents:  Lessons from the Teenage Parent Demonstration (Hershey, 1991).

5.  Staff turnover was quite low in the demonstration programs;  the case managers who were hired generally found their jobs rewarding and were pleased to have been selected to work in the program.

6.  F. F. Furstenberg, J. Brooks-Gunn, and S.P. Morgan.  Adolescent Mothers in Later Life. New York, NY:  Cambridge University Press, 1987, S.M. Horwitz, et al, "School-Aged Mothers:  Predictors of Long-Term Educational and Economic Outcomes", Pediatrics, 1991, vol. 87, pp. 862-868, and D.F. Polit and C.M. White, The Lives of Young Disadvantaged Mothers:  The 5-Year Follow-Up of the Project Reduction Sample.  Saratoga Springs, NY:  Humanalysis, 1988.